Root Canal Preparation

Comparative evaluation of shaping ability of different rotary NiTi instruments in curved canals using CBCT.
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the canal transportation, canal centering ability, and time taken for preparation of curved root canals after instrumentation with ProFile GT Series X (GTX) files, Revo-S files, twisted files, and Mtwo files by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 20 to 40 were divided according to the instrument used in canal preparation into four groups of 10 samples each: GTX (group I), Revo-S (group II), twisted file (group III), and Mtwo (group IV). The teeth were instrumented according to manufacturer''s guidelines, with all groups being prepared to size 30, 0.06 taper master apical file. Canals were scanned using an i-CAT CBCT scanner (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA, USA) before and after preparation to evaluate the transportation and centering ratio at 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm from the apex. The data collected were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey''s honestly significant difference (HSD) test. RESULTS: Twisted file system showed significantly least canal transportation and highest canal centering ability values as compared to GTX, Revo-S, and Mtwo file systems. Overall, GTX, Revo-S, and Mtwo showed comparable results with respect to canal transportation and centering ability. CONCLUSION: The innovative method of manufacturing the TF system resulted in superior shaping ability in curved canals, with the instruments remaining more centered and producing less canal transportation than GTX, Revo-S, and Mtwo file systems.
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Accidental periapical extrusion of non-setting calcium hydroxide: Unusual bone response and management.
Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide is frequently used as interim root canal dressing in endodontically involved permanent teeth and as obturating paste in deciduous teeth in pediatric dentistry. Wide apex in both cases makes it more prone for deliberate extrusion especially when applied with pressure delivery systems. Contrary to common belief the mix was not resorbed in two years with the complaint of insufficiency in mastication. Large mass of calcium hydroxide in bone delayed healing process even after its removal. The present case report intends to demonstrate unusual behavior of bone in response to oily non-setting preparation of calcium hydroxide. Therefore its application with pressure syringe should be reconsidered in pediatric dentistry.
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Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation;G(single-cone) - single cone;G(tagger) - Tagger''s hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger''s hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth.
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Root dentin strain and temperature rise during endodontic treatment and post rehabilitation.
This study investigated the effects of endodontic treatment procedures and different post systems rehabilitation steps on the strain and temperature rise on apical and cervical root dentin regions. Twenty-one extracted human canine teeth had two strain gages attached to the distal root surface and two thermocouples attached to the mesial root surface (cervical and apical). The strain and temperature rise were recorded during the following procedures: root canal preparation, final rinse and drying, root canal filling and canal relief. Then the teeth were divided into three groups (n=7), according to the type of post system: CPC, cast post and core;FGP, fiberglass post;and PSP, prefabricated steel post. Data continued to be recorded during the post space preparation, post modeling (only for CPC), post trying and post cementation. Data were subjected to a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey''s test (α=0.05). The post-space preparation caused the highest temperature rise (4.0-14.9 °C) and the highest strain in the apical region during irrespective of post type. The resin cement light-activation resulted in significant temperature increases in the cervical region for all of the groups. The canal relief and the post-space preparation produced highest temperature rises. The CPC post modeling resulted in higher root strain level similarly the level of post preparation. The PSP resulted in highest strain during post trying and post cementation.
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Efficacy of an organic solvent and ultrasound for filling material removal.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a final rinse with Endosolv R® solvent and ultrasound resulted in cleaner root canal walls during endodontic retreatment. A total of 56 extracted premolar teeth were manually instrumented using a step-back flare technique and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. After 9 months, the canals were retreated by removing the gutta-percha and sealer with ProTaper Universal Retreatment and rotary preparation with ProTaper Universal System up to an F5 file. As a final step, the teeth were randomly divided in 4 groups (n=14) and were subjected to passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with either Endosolv R or distilled water. In the control groups, the irrigants were left undisturbed. Roots were cleaved and examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the amount of filling remnants on the canal walls was assessed by two calibrated examiners in a blinded fashion. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test (α=0.05). All groups presented filling debris in the three root canal thirds after retreatment. There were no significant differences between the groups or among the root canal thirds within each group (p>0.05). PUI with Endosolv R was not effective in the removal of filling debris from root canal walls.
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Influence of apical patency and cleaning of the apical foramen on periapical extrusion in retreatment.
This study evaluated the influence of apical patency, root filling removal technique and cleaning of the apical foramen, concerning the amount of debris extruded during root canal retreatment. Forty mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups - GIM (n=10), GIIM (n=10), GIPT (n=10) and GIIPT (n=10), which were named according to leaving (I) or not (II) apical patency during canal preparation and filling removal technique (manual - M or ProTaper system - PT). After filling material removal, each specimen of each group had the apical foramen cleaned by sizes 15, 20 and 25 instruments, generating 12 subgroups: GIM15, GIM20, GIM25, GIIM15, GIIM20, GIIM25, GIPT15, GIPT20, GIPT25, GIIPT15, GIIPT20 and GIIPT25. Extruded filling debris was collected by a Milipore filtration system, an HV-durapore, 0.45 µm pore filter with a 25 mm diameter. The filters were weighed before and after the collection on an analytical scale (10-5 g), and the difference was calculated. The mean weight of extruded filling debris was analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman ANOVA tests (α=0.05). The mean values found in the groups (in mg) were: GIM (0.95±0.94), GIIM (0.47±0.62), GIPT (0.30±0.31) and GIIPT (0.32±0.44). There was no statistically significant difference among any of the groups or subgroups (p>0.05). ProTaper provided the smallest amount of extruded filling material, regardless of presence or absence of apical patency, followed by manual technique, without and with apical patency. Additional amounts of debris were collected during cleaning of the apical foramen, regardless of the instrument, presence/absence of patency or root filling removal technique.
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Evaluation of marginal leakage of different temporary restorative materials in Endodontics.
AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the coronal marginal leakage of three temporary restorative materials used for root canal sealing after endodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 88 single-rooted teeth were submitted to biomechanical preparation and filled by lateral condensation technique. After obturation process, the teeth were randomly separated into four groups, being two teeth of each group used as positive and negative control. Temporary sealing was performed as follows: GI - Clip F (VOCO);GII - Bioplic (Biodinβmica);GIII - Vitremer (3M ESPE) and GIV - Ketak N100 (3M ESPE). Next, the specimens were immersed into Indian ink for 30 and 60- days, being 10 specimens for each time interval and then submitted to diaphanization to verify the amount of coronal leakage using a measuring microscope. RESULTS: Leakage mean values within the 30-day period were as follows: Vitremer (0.3 mm), Ketak N100 and Clip F (0.6 mm) and Bioplic (1.7 mm). Within the 60-day period, leakage means were 1.1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: None of the materials was capable of preventing marginal leakage within the 30- and 60-day period. In both time intervals, Bioplic presented the highest mean of leakage and Vitremer the lowest.
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Comparative evaluation of debris removal from root canal wall by using EndoVac and conventional needle irrigation: An in vitro study.
CONTEXT: Microbial control is of paramount importance in Clinical Endodontics. Therefore, cleaning and disinfection of root canals are essential to achieve endodontic success. AIMS: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle (30 gauges side venting needle) irrigation for removal of debris from the root canal walls at coronal, middle and apical third by using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: An in vitro randomized control trial study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 mandibular premolars with completely formed roots were selected and randomly divided into two groups - Group 1: Irrigation with the Conventional system and Group 2: EndoVac irrigation. After access opening and working length determination biomechanical preparation completed up to a rotary protaper F4 file. Groupwise irrigation with sodium hypochlorite and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was done with each canal in between instrumentation. Then, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and the halves were sputter-coated with gold palladium and coronal, middle and apical third were examined by SEM at x2000 magnification. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Mann-Whitney test for comparison between methods, Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among thirds and Miller test for individual comparisons. RESULTS: The apical, middle and cervical root canal thirds were evaluated and the results were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test for comparison between methods, Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among thirds and Miller test for individual comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: EndoVac group resulted in significantly less debris at apical third compared with the conventional needle irrigation group. There was no statistical significant difference found in debris removal at coronal and middle third of root canal wall between the EndoVac group and conventional needle irrigation group.
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Repair of an Extensive Furcation Perforation with CEM Cement: A Case Study.
Iatrogenic perforation of the furcation area in multi-rooted molars during preparation of the access cavity can potentially lead to tooth extraction. The present case report describes the nonsurgical endodontic management of an extensive pulp chamber floor perforation in a first mandibular molar with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. The perforation was chemically cleaned and then physically sealed with CEM cement. Root canal therapy was completed and the tooth was then restored with amalgam. A one-year follow-up revealed the absence of symptoms of infection/inflammation as well as clinical and radiographic signs/symptoms and therefore, can be interpreted as a favorable treatment outcome.
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The Effect of Size and Taper of Apical Preparation in Reducing Intra- Canal Bacteria: A Quantitative SEM Study.
Introduction: Bacteria and their byproducts are major etiologic factors in endodontic diseases. Prevention or reduction of root canal bacterial contamination is the main aim of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of size and taper of master apical file (MAF) in reducing bacteria from the apical third of the curved canals using a quantitative scanning electron microscope (SEM) study. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine human mandibular first molars with curved MB canals (20(º)-35(º)) were divided into one control group (n=5) (without rotary instrumentation) and 6 experimental groups (n=14). The canals were prepared using RaCe rotary files to the MAF sizes 25/0.04, 25/0.06, 30/0.04, 30/0.06, 35/0.04 and 35/0.06, in groups 1 to 6, respectively. All the experimental groups were finally rinsed with 2 mL of 17% EDTA followed by 3 mL of 5.25% NaOCl. The mesial roots were split longitudinally. Remaining bacteria in the apical third of MB canals were evaluated using SEM (2000×). Data analysis was performed using one way ANOVA with Tukey''s post hoc test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P<0.001). Although the greater size and/or taper resulted in decrease in bacteria, differences between the groups were not significant. Conclusion: Based on this in vitro study the MAF #25/0.04 had no significant difference compared to other groups with greater apical size/taper;all groups could effectively reduce intra- canal bacteria.
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