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Free Full Text ArticleMicroleakage of seven adhesive systems in enamel and dentin.
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Microleakage of seven adhesive systems in enamel and dentin.

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2006 Nov 1;7(5):26-33

Authors: Silveira de Araújo C, Incerti da Silva T, Ogliari FA, Meireles SS, Piva E, Demarco FF

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of seven adhesive systems on two substrates (enamel and dentin). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Class V cavities were performed in buccal and lingual surfaces of 56 bovine incisors. The cervical margin was located in dentin and the incisal margin in enamel. The specimens were randomly divided into seven groups (n=16), according to the adhesive system employed: Single Bond; Excite; One Step Plus; Gluma One Bond; Magic Bond; One Up Bond F; and One Coat Bond. The cavities were incrementally filled with a hybrid composite Filtek Z250 and polymerized with a XL 3000 light curing unit. After polishing, the specimens were submitted to thermal cycling followed by dye immersion. Leakage was evaluated under magnification (40X) based on a standard ranking. Data were subjected to statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis). RESULTS: Enamel margins exhibited lower leakage than dentin margins (p<0.01). The majority of the specimens were leakage-free and materials performed similarly. Conversely, in dentin most of the specimens exhibited the highest leakage degree and significant differences among materials (p<0.05) were found, with Excite exhibiting the lowest leakage degree. It was concluded enamel provided better sealing and the adhesive system was a significant factor only in dentin.

PMID: 17091137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleShear bond strength of acetone-based one-bottle adhesive systems.
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Shear bond strength of acetone-based one-bottle adhesive systems.

Braz Dent J. 2006;17(1):39-43

Authors: Lopes GC, Cardoso PC, Vieira LC, Baratieri LN, Rampinelli K, Costa G

The aim of this study was to assess the shear bond strength of four acetone-based one-bottle adhesive systems to enamel and dentin, and compare to that of an ethanol-based system used as control. Fifty human molars were bisected mesiodistally and the buccal and lingual surfaces were embedded in acrylic resin using PVC cylinders. The buccal surfaces were ground to obtain flat dentin surfaces, while the lingual surfaces were ground to obtain flat enamel surfaces. All specimens were polished up to 600-grit sandpapers and randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=20; 10 dentin specimens and 10 enamel specimens), according to the adhesive system used: One-Step (Bisco); Gluma One Bond (Heraeus Kulzer); Solobond M (Voco); TenureQuik w/F (Den-Mat) and OptiBond Solo Plus (Kerr) (control). Each adhesive system was applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. The respective proprietary hybrid composite was applied in a gelatin capsule (d=4.3 mm) and light-cured for 40 s. The specimens were tested in shear strength with an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Bond strengths means were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc (p< or =0.05). Shear bond strength means (MPa) (+/-SD) to enamel and dentin were: Enamel: One-Step=11.3(+/-4.9); Gluma One Bond=16.3(+/-10.1); Solobond M=18.9(+/-4.5); TenureQuik w/F=18.7(+/-4.5) and OptiBond Solo Plus=16.4(+/-3.9); Dentin: One-Step=6.4(+/-2.8); Gluma One Bond=3.0(+/-3.4); Solobond M=10.6(+/-4.9); TenureQuik w/F=7.8(+/-3.9) and OptiBond Solo Plus=15.1(+/-8.9). In enamel, the adhesive systems had statistically similar bond strengths to each other (p>0.05). However, the ethanol-based system (OptiBond Solo Plus) showed significantly higher bond strength to dentin than the acetone-based systems (p< or =0.0001). In conclusion, the solvent type (acetone or ethanol) had no influence on enamel bond strength, but had great influence on dentin bonding, which should be taken into account when choosing the adhesive system.

PMID: 16721463 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleThe influence of some dentin primers on calcium hydroxide lining cement.
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The influence of some dentin primers on calcium hydroxide lining cement.

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005 May 15;6(2):1-9

Authors: El-Araby A, Al-Jabab A

Dentin primer is applied as a routine procedure prior to bonding to improve the sealing properties of direct polymerizing resins. Some primers contain acetone or alcohol that may affect the properties of calcium hydroxide liner which is placed as a direct or indirect pulp cap. If calcium hydroxide is softened or smeared over the cavity walls, the bonding will be impaired. Therefore, if this occurs, the cement must be removed, the walls must be cleansed, and the procedure must be repeated with careful application of dentin primer. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the wear and compressive strength of a calcium hydroxide liner after exposure to different kinds of dentin primers for different periods of time. METHODS: The calcium hydroxide used in this study was Dycal. It was mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions and placed in plastic rings of 0.5 mm x 5 mm and allowed to set at 37 degrees C for 15 min under 500 gm load. To determine erosion, the height for each sample before and after application of primers was recorded using a Digital Height Measuring Instrument "Digmar" 817. Compressive strength specimens were also prepared. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide treated with Optibond (alcohol based) or Syntac (acetone based) for 1 min or 5 min had the highest erosion values and the lowest compressive strength values. Gluma CPs (water based primer) had the least effect on calcium hydroxide values.

PMID: 15915199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text Article[Bonding strength and interface effects of different dentin surface on aceton...
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[Bonding strength and interface effects of different dentin surface on acetone-based adhesives bonding]

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2004 Feb;13(1):44-7

Authors: Li X, Zhao XY, Shi CX, Zhu GD, Li HT

PURPOSE: To study the influences on microstructure characteristic and bonding strength of acetone-based wet bonding systems when bonding on dry or wet dentin surface. METHODS: Three acetone-based wet bonding systems, Gluma One-Bond, Bond-1 and One-Step, were used to bond Chrisma composite resin to dry or moist dentin surface, and the bonding interface was observed with HITACHI S-2700 scanning electron microscope. Microtensile strengths of different groups were measured with Instro 1195. RESULTS: All three bonding systems can infiltrate well into dentin bonding interface in the wet groups. A hybrid layer of about 5microm could be observed with resin tags traversing from the resin layer above into the undemineralized dentin below and the lateral branch of dentinal tubule. In the dry groups, three zones, a surface and a basal hybrid layer sandwiching a middle hybridoid region, could be observed. The hybrid layer was very thinner. Microtensile strength had significantly decreased while bonding on dry dentin surface with acetone-based wet bonding systems, with the maximum decrease of 39% in Bond-1. CONCLUSION: Incompletely infiltrated adhesive on dentin bonding interface could be observed and microtensile strength had significantly decreased while bonding on dry dentin surface with acetone-based wet bonding systems. Moist dentin surface, which can maintain collagen-rich fibrous network of demineralized dentin, is necessary when bonding with acetone-based wet bonding systems. Microtensile strength approaches to the real dentin bonding strength.

PMID: 15007481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleA nanoleakage perspective on bonding to oxidized dentin.
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A nanoleakage perspective on bonding to oxidized dentin.

J Dent Res. 2002 Sep;81(9):628-32

Authors: Yiu CK, Garc&#xED;a-Godoy F, Tay FR, Pashley DH, Imazato S, King NM, Lai SC

The mechanism responsible for sodium-hypochlorite-induced reduction in dentin bond strength and its reversal with reducing agents is unknown. This study examined the relationship between nanoleakage and reversal of compromised bonding to oxidized dentin. Acid-etched dentin was completely depleted of demineralized collagen matrix when sodium hypochlorite was used. Specimens were bonded with two single-bottle dentin adhesives. They were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate for 24 hrs before being processed for transmission electron microscopy. For both adhesives, tensile bond strengths of acid-etched dentin were significantly reduced after sodium hypochlorite treatment, but were reversed when sodium ascorbate was used. After sodium hypochlorite application, reticular nanoleakge patterns in hybrid layers were replaced by vertical, shag-carpet-like patterns along the demineralization front. This type of nanoleakage was completely eliminated after sodium ascorbate treatment with the materials tested. Residual sodium hypochlorite within the porosities of mineralized dentin may result in incomplete resin polymerization, and hence compromised bond strength.

PMID: 12202645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleClinical status of ten dentin adhesive systems.
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Clinical status of ten dentin adhesive systems.

J Dent Res. 1994 Nov;73(11):1690-702

Authors: Van Meerbeek B, Peumans M, Verschueren M, Gladys S, Braem M, Lambrechts P, Vanherle G

Laboratory testing of dentin adhesive systems still requires corroboration by long-term clinical trials for their ultimate clinical effectiveness to be validated. The objective of this clinical investigation was to evaluate, retrospectively, the clinical effectiveness of earlier-investigated dentin adhesive systems (Scotchbond, Gluma, Clearfil New Bond, Scotchbond 2, Tenure, and Tripton), and to compare their clinical results with those obtained with four modern total-etch adhesive systems (Bayer exp. 1 and 2, Clearfil Liner Bond System, and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose). In total, 1177 Class V cervical lesions in the teeth of 346 patients were restored following two cavity designs: In Group A, enamel was neither beveled nor intentionally etched, as per ADA guidelines; in Group B, adjacent enamel was beveled and conditioned. Clinical retention rates definitely indicated the improved clinical efficacy of the newest dentin adhesives over the earlier systems. With regard to adhesion strategy, adhesive systems that removed the smear layer and concurrently demineralized the dentin surface layer performed clinically better than systems that modified the disorderly layer of smear debris without complete removal. Hybridization by resin interdiffusion into the exposed dentinal collagen layer, combined with attachment of resin tags into the opened dentin tubules, appeared to be essential for reliable dentin bonding but might be insufficient by itself. The additional formation of an elastic bonding area as a polymerization shrinkage absorber and the use of a microfine restorative composite apparently guaranteed an efficient clinical result. The perfect one-year retention recorded for Clearfil Liner Bond System and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose must be confirmed at later recalls.

PMID: 7983255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleSolubility parameters, fractional polarities, and bond strengths of some inte...
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Solubility parameters, fractional polarities, and bond strengths of some intermediary resins used in dentin bonding.

J Dent Res. 1993 Mar;72(3):558-65

Authors: Asmussen E, Uno S

An effective bonding of resin composites to dentin is generally preceded by a conditioning of the surface of the dentin. Previous studies have indicated that the intermediary or adhesive resin should have specific wetting characteristics matching those of the conditioned dentin, in order that optimum bonding can be ensured. The wetting characteristics may be expressed in terms of solubility parameter (delta) and polarity (p) of the resin. The aims of the present study were to determine these variables for a number of compounds used in adhesive resins and to investigate the effects of delta and p on the shear bond strength to dentin. Solubility parameters were obtained according to the method of Small. Fractional polarities were calculated on the basis of measurements of refractive index and dielectric constant of the resins. In the measurements of bond strength, Scotchprep, EDTA + Gluma, or Al2Ox3/glycine were used as dentin conditioners in combination with intermediary resins having various delta and p. For each conditioner, the shear bond strength (BS) could be "explained" by an exponential expression of the form BS = e(a + bx), where x = (delta + cp + d)2, and where a-d are constants depending on the conditioned dentin. It may be concluded that solubility parameter and polarity of the intermediary resins are important variables in the process of bonding to dentin.

PMID: 8450114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleInfluence of dentinal fluid and stress on marginal adaptation of resin compos...
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Influence of dentinal fluid and stress on marginal adaptation of resin composites.

J Dent Res. 1993 Feb;72(2):490-4

Authors: Krejci I, Kuster M, Lutz F

The influence of dentinal fluid and of a number of stress procedures on the quality of the margins of class V restorations located in both enamel and dentin was quantitatively assessed in vitro with the aid of a scanning electron microscope. The materials tested were GLUMA 2000 experimental, Prisma Universal Bond 3, and Syntac, together with the fine hybrid composites supplied by the respective manufacturers (Pekafill, AP.H, and Tetric). All materials achieved over 95% of "continuous margin" in enamel before and after stressing. In dentin, the initial values, with as well as without dentinal fluid simulation, were situated between 93.2 and 98.2%. With GLUMA 2000 experimental after stressing, a "continuous margin" occurred in only 50.2%, but with Prisma Universal Bond 3 and Syntac, the value was 79.0%. The influence of dentinal fluid simulation was dependent on the dentinal adhesive used. The effects of the various stress procedures were not significantly different.

PMID: 8423246 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleDentin bond strength of light-cured glass-ionomer cements.
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Dentin bond strength of light-cured glass-ionomer cements.

J Dent Res. 1991 Dec;70(12):1542-4

Authors: Hinoura K, Miyazaki M, Onose H

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of surface treatments and irradiation conditions on the bond strength of light-cured glass-ionomer cements to dentin. The light-cured glass-ionomer cements used in this study were Vitrabond, XR Ionomer, and Fuji Lining LC. Three experiments were designed to study the influence of the following factors on bond strength to dentin: (1) effect of the surface treatment of the dentin, (2) effect of the irradiation time, (3) effect of an increase in the interval between mixing of the cement and irradiation. Samples were stored in water for 24 hours, after which shear bond testing was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. For Vitrabond, the Scotchprep and Gluma 2 treatments gave the greatest shear bond strengths. For XR Ionomer and Fuji Lining LC, the Scotchprep treatment gave the greatest shear bond strengths. The bond strengths for all cements increased with prolonged irradiation time. Bond strengths decreased with a longer elapsed time between mixing and light-curing. This means that light-curing should be done soon after the cement is placed. The failure mode was found to be cohesive in the ionomer.

PMID: 1774385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleAmine-induced polymerization of aqueous HEMA/aldehyde during action as a dent...
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Amine-induced polymerization of aqueous HEMA/aldehyde during action as a dentin bonding agent.

J Dent Res. 1990 Jun;69(6):1236-9

Authors: Munksgaard EC

Aqueous mixtures of HEMA with glutaraldehyde or propionaldehyde polymerize by addition of catalytic amounts of amines or amino acids. The maximal reaction velocity of the transformation of HEMA/glutaraldehyde with glycine was obtained at pH 0.8. Kinetic data suggested a second-order reaction between glutaraldehyde and glycine, and solubility data suggested formation of a cross-linked polymer. A relatively high bond strength between dentin and resin composite was obtained by pre-treatment of dentin with Gluma (35% HEMA, 5% glutaraldehyde in water) adjusted to pH 1.0 with hydrochloric acid. It is proposed that on application of Gluma, amino-group-containing substances in dentin react with glutaraldehyde and start the formation of a HEMA polymer. This product may be cross-linked by an alpha,beta-unsaturated glutaraldehyde aldol condensation product and may bond to dentin by aldehyde fixation to dentin proteins. Resin composite will bond to this product by copolymerization.

PMID: 2113067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleComparison of in vivo vs. in vitro bonding of composite resin to the dentin o...
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Comparison of in vivo vs. in vitro bonding of composite resin to the dentin of canine teeth.

J Dent Res. 1988 Feb;67(2):467-70

Authors: Pashley EL, Tao L, Mackert JR, Pashley DH

Dogs were utilized in a study to compare the bond strengths of dentin bonding agents made to dentin in vivo and then again in vitro in the same teeth 30 min, one day, one week, and one month post-extraction. No statistically significant differences were observed between bonds made in vivo and those made in vitro at any time period. Contamination of the dentin surfaces with blood or saliva lowered the bond strengths, but these could be restored to control values by re-surfacing of the dentin with a bur.

PMID: 11039058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleEffect of acidic pretreatment on adhesion to dentin mediated by Gluma.
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Effect of acidic pretreatment on adhesion to dentin mediated by Gluma.

J Dent Res. 1987 Aug;66(8):1386-8

Authors: Asmussen E, Bowen RL

Tensile bond strengths between dentin and a typical restorative resin were measured after the dentin was treated with Gluma. Solutions of phosphoric, pyruvic, nitric, or oxalic acid, also containing various amino acids, were used as pretreatments. Without amino acids in the solutions, the pretreatments conferred bonds of low strength. Use of acidic solutions containing glycine or N-phenylglycine was found to give bonds of high strength to both dentin and enamel.

PMID: 3114348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleDentin-polymer bond promoted by Gluma and various resins.
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Dentin-polymer bond promoted by Gluma and various resins.

J Dent Res. 1985 Dec;64(12):1409-11

Authors: Munksgaard EC, Irie M, Asmussen E

Gluma-treated dentin was covered with various resins before a microfilled composite was applied. The strength of the bond between dentin and composite established by this procedure was measured in shear and tensile tests. The effectiveness of the bonding was further tested by the width of the marginal contraction gap around fillings made in dentin by the above procedure. Resins containing propanal promoted shear bond strength of about 15 MPa. The tensile bond strength exceeded 22 MPa by one of the resins, but could not be measured because of frequent rupture in the composite. Between 30 and 70% of the fillings were without contraction gaps when propanal or p-toluenesulfinate-containing resins were used. It is proposed that oxygen inhibition of the polymerization on the dentin surface suppresses the bonding. Resins containing reducing agents may reduce oxygen inhibition and increase bonding by the adhesive.

PMID: 2934449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Full Text ArticleDentin-polymer bond in resin fillings tested in vitro by thermo- and load-cyc...
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Dentin-polymer bond in resin fillings tested in vitro by thermo- and load-cycling.

J Dent Res. 1985 Feb;64(2):144-6

Authors: Munksgaard EC, Itoh K, J&#xF6;rgensen KD

The effect of stress applied by thermo- and load-cycling to the bond between composite- and bonding-agent-treated dentin was tested. Cylindrical cavities in extracted human teeth, approximately one-half of the margins in dentin, were etched and treated with two bonding agents - Gluma and Clearfil Bond - before being filled with Silux composite. Forty specimens, some provided with cavity floor lining, were cycled several hundred times between 15 degrees and 50 degrees C, either immediately after light-curing or upon 24 hr of water storage. In all cases, microscopic inspection revealed unchanged adaptation at the dentin margins. Teeth with Class 3 and Class 5 cavities, ten of each and with the gingival margins entirely in dentin, were pre-treated and filled as above. The teeth were covered with a dye during loading and unloading in a manner simulating biting and chewing. Inspection of the cavity margins revealed absence of percolation at the dentin margins. It is concluded that effective bonding agents are necessary to prevent contraction gaps in resin-filled cavities where the margins are partly or entirely located in dentin.

PMID: 3156162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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