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  Free Full Text References 17 Dec 2007


Free Full Text ArticleOral health status in patients with moderate-severe and terminal renal failure.
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Oral health status in patients with moderate-severe and terminal renal failure.

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007 Aug;12(4):E305-10

Authors: Sobrado Marinho JS, Tomás Carmona I, Loureiro A, Limeres Posse J, García Caballero L, Diz Dios P

AIMS: To evaluate the oral health status of patients with moderate-severe chronic renal failure (CRF) and with terminal renal failure (TRF). DESIGN: The study group was formed of 50 patients: 22 (44%) with moderate-severe CRF and 28 (56%) with TRF included in a haemodialysis programme. The controls (n=64) presented similar characteristics with regard to sex, age, weight and educational level. A single dentist performed an intraoral examination on all the subjects, gathering information on: number of decayed, missing or filled teeth; supragingival plaque accumulation; calculus deposits; periodontal pockets in the Ramfjord teeth; and depth of loss of insertion. RESULTS: No significant differences were detected in the values of the DMF index between the two groups. The mean number of decayed teeth was lower in the patients than in the controls, showing a tendency to statistical significance (p=0.052). The mean number of missing teeth was higher in the patients than in the controls (p=0.002). Twelve patients and seven controls were completely edentate. The mean number of filled teeth was significantly lower in the patients than the controls (p<0.001). Supragingival plaque accumulation and the loss of insertion were significantly greater in the patients than in the controls (p=0.006 and p<0.001, respectively). No significant differences were found with respect to the calculus deposits or to the presence of periodontal pockets in the two groups. The value of the DMF index, the mean number of teeth with caries and the number of filled teeth were significantly higher in the patients with moderate-severe CRF than in the patients with TRF (p=0.004, p=0.030 and p=0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CRF have a lower prevalence of caries, more supragingival plaque, more teeth with a loss of insertion and more missing teeth than the healthy controls. The prevalence of caries is affected by the severity of the renal failure and/or by haemodialysis treatment.

PMID: 17664917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleApplicability of an abbreviated version of the Child-OIDP inventory among pri...
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Applicability of an abbreviated version of the Child-OIDP inventory among primary schoolchildren in Tanzania.

Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2007;5:40

Authors: Mtaya M, Astr&#xF8;m AN, Tsakos G

BACKGROUND: There is a need for studies evaluating oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children in developing countries. AIM: to assess the psychometric properties, prevalence and perceived causes of the child version of oral impact on daily performance inventory (Child-OIDP) among school children in two socio-demographically different districts of Tanzania. Socio-behavioral and clinical correlates of children's OHRQoL were also investigated. METHOD: One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr, 60.5% girls) attending 16 (urban and rural) primary schools in Kinondoni and Temeke districts completed a survey instrument in face to face interviews and participated in a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child-OIDP frequency score, global oral health indicators and socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: The Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP inventory preserved the overall concept of the original English version and revealed good reliability in terms of Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.77 (Kinondoni: 0.62, Temeke: 0.76). Weighted Kappa scores from a test-retest were 1.0 and 0.8 in Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. Validity was supported in that the OIDP scores varied systematically and in the expected direction with self-reported oral health measures and socio-behavioral indicators. Confirmatory factor analyses, CFA, confirmed three dimensions identified initially by Principle Component Analysis within the OIDP item pool. A total of 28.6% of the participants had at least one oral impact. The area specific rates for Kinondoni and Temeke were 18.5% and 45.5%. The most frequently reported impacts were problems eating and cleaning teeth, and the most frequently reported cause of impacts were toothache, ulcer in mouth and position of teeth. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP was applicable for use among schoolchildren in Tanzania.

PMID: 17631038 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationsh...
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[Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth]

Gac Sanit. 2007 May-Jun;21(3):227-34

Authors: Vallejos-S&#xE1;nchez AA, Medina-Solís CE, Casanova-Rosado JF, Maupomé G, Casanova-Rosado AJ, Minaya-Sánchez M

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old in 4 elementary schools in Campeche, Mexico through the use of a questionnaire for the mothers and an oral examination in the children. The dependent variable was the prevalence of caries in permanent dentition. RESULTS: The mean number of decay, missing or filling teeth in primary dentition (dmft) and in permanent dentition (DMFT) was 2.48 (2.82) (deft > 0 = 58.9%) and 0.40 (0.98) (DMFT > 0 = 18.2%), respectively. The significant caries index (SiC), which is calculated in deciduous dentition, was 5.85 for 6 year-olds. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for variables related to fluoride exposure revealed that older age (OR = 2.99), a deft of > 0 (OR = 5.46), and lower maternal educational level (OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher number of dental caries in permanent teeth. An interaction between sex and enamel defects was also found. CONCLUSIONS: The number of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentitions was relatively smaller than that found in prior studies performed in Mexican populations. The results confirm that the presence of caries in primary dentition is strongly associated with caries in permanent dentition. No significant relationship was found between fluoride exposure and dental caries in permanent dentition.

PMID: 17565898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe dental and oral status of children with chronic renal failure.
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The dental and oral status of children with chronic renal failure.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2007 Mar;25(1):7-9

Authors: Nakhjavani YB, Bayramy A

The main purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the oral and dental status of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients undergoing hemodialysis at children's Hospitals in Tehran. Fifty-three children with CRF aged 5-18 years recruited from the renal unit of children's medical center, Tehran Hospitals for children, were studied. The decayed, missing, filled dmf, DMF and MGI scores were recorded. The CRF children had low prevalence of dental caries, although none of the clinical diagnoses displayed the absence of gingival inflammation. Duration of dialysis and Anemia had a significant influence on the gingival condition. Especially anemia leads to severe gingivitis. The CRF children need careful monitoring and all such patient should be given oral hygiene education as topmost priority.

PMID: 17456959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleAssociation between clinical parameters and the presence of active caries les...
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Association between clinical parameters and the presence of active caries lesions in first permanent molars.

Braz Oral Res. 2006 Oct-Dec;20(4):358-63

Authors: Quaglio JM, Sousa MB, Ardenghi TM, Mendes FM, Imparato JC, Pinheiro SL

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between clinical parameters and the presence of active caries lesions on the occlusal surface of first permanent molars. Forty eight children (5.8-13.8 years-old) with at least one first permanent molar present were selected. The clinical parameters evaluated were gender, age, DMF-T and dmf-t, presence of active white spots in other teeth, general plaque index, tooth's dental arch (upper or lower), tooth's side (right or left), presence of visible plaque and eruption degree of the first permanent molars. The first permanent molars were evaluated through visual inspection by two examiners in order to assess the presence of active or inactive caries lesions on the occlusal surface. Univariate and multivariate analyses for determination of the association between clinical parameters and the presence of active caries lesions in these teeth were performed. The presence of active white spots in other teeth was associated with the presence of active caries lesions in the first permanent molars, in both univariate and multivariate analyses (Odds ratio = 8.8 and 1.9, respectively). The presence of abundant visible plaque on the occlusal surface of the first permanent molars (Odds ratio = 3.5 in the univariate analysis, and 3.9 in the multivariate one) also presented a significant association. In conclusion, the presence of active white spots in other teeth and the presence of considerable visible plaque were associated with the presence of active caries lesions on the occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars.

PMID: 17242799 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticlePrevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term.
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Prevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term.

Braz Oral Res. 2006 Oct-Dec;20(4):353-7

Authors: Gravina DB, Cruvinel VR, Azevedo TD, de Toledo OA, Bezerra AC

The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in 192 children, 96 born prematurely and 96 at full term, in a regional hospital in Brazil. Mean age at clinical examination was 40.72 months in the full-term group (G1) and 30.44 months in the premature group (G2). The children were divided in two age subgroups: 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. Statistical results (Student's t and Kruskal-Wallis tests) showed that dmft was 0.43 for G1 and 0.01 for G2 in the 0-3 age subgroup, and 1.7 for G1 and 1.1 for G2 in the 4-6 age subgroup. Differences were significant between G1 and G2 only in the 0-3 age subgroup (p = 0.047). Caries evaluation showed that, of the 96 children in G1, 75 were caries free, while in G2, 84 did not have the disease. These differences were not significant (p = 0.088). The lower mean dmft found in the 0-3 age subgroup in G2 may be attributed to routines established by the hospital's neonatology staff, such as frequent dental visits and preventive instructions about oral habits, oral hygiene and diet. After this age, with the completion of the primary dentition, values increased and became similar between the G1 and G2 groups. Results also suggested a highly skewed distribution since most caries were found in only a small number of children.

PMID: 17242798 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleCorrelation of cariogenic bacteria and dental caries in adults.
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Correlation of cariogenic bacteria and dental caries in adults.

J Oral Sci. 2006 Dec;48(4):245-51

Authors: Nishikawara F, Katsumura S, Ando A, Tamaki Y, Nakamura Y, Sato K, Nomura Y, Hanada N

Many studies suggest that mutans streptococci (MS), Lactobacillus (LB), and salivary buffering capacity are important risk factors for dental caries. However, target populations for most studies were children. In adult patients, the same risk factors affect the number of fillings or prostheses or secondary caries. It is therefore important to investigate these risk factors as predictors of caries in adults. In the present study, we evaluated the oral conditions of adult subjects at private dental offices using bite-wing radiographs. Detection of salivary LB level using Dentocult LB had a statistically significant correlation with the number of flat surface caries and approximal caries (P < 0.001). Detection of salivary MS level using Dentocult MS and salivary buffering capacity did not predict dental caries. Thus, detection of salivary LB level using Dentocult LB may be a useful tool for detecting approximal and secondary caries.

PMID: 17220624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleEmploying dmft score as a risk predictor for caries development in the perman...
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Employing dmft score as a risk predictor for caries development in the permanent teeth in Japanese primary school girls.

J Oral Sci. 2006 Dec;48(4):233-7

Authors: Motohashi M, Yamada H, Genkai F, Kato H, Imai T, Sato S, Sugaya A, Maeno M

The aim of this study was to examine the significance of evaluating dmft for predicting the incidence of permanent teeth caries in Japanese girls. The subjects were two birth cohorts in a Primary girls' school: cohort I composed of 45 girls born in 1981 and 1982 and cohort II composed of 53 girls born in 1989 and 1990. In both cohorts, there was a significant correlation between the dmft score in the first grade and the DMFT score in the sixth grade. The validity of employing dmft score was examined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and risk ratios. The shape of the curve and areas under the curve were similar in the two cohorts. In cohort II, sensitivity and specificity for the optimal cut-off level (dmft >or= 5) were 0.519 and 0.923, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for that level were 0.875 and 0.649, respectively. In cohort I, sensitivity and specificity were 0.741 and 0.722 for that level and positive and negative predictive values were 0.800 and 0.650, respectively. In both cohorts, the risk ratio for permanent teeth caries was significant for many cut-off levels of dmft. The results indicated that the dmft score is a useful predictor of the permanent teeth caries in Japanese primary school girls.

PMID: 17220622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleOral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patie...
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Oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients: one year descriptive cross sectional study.

Indian J Dent Res. 2006 Oct-Dec;17(4):171-7

Authors: Kumar M, Chandu GN, Shafiulla MD

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatric patients are one of the special groups requiring attention as they are often neglected. Oral health is an major determinant of general health for psychiatric patients and may have a low priority in the context of mental illness. The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of institutionalized psychiatric patients of Davangere. METHODS: 220 psychiatric patients admitted in two general hospitals of Davangere during the period of one year were included in the study. The oral health status was evaluated with respect to caries, oral hygiene, and periodontal status. RESULTS: Of the 180 examined with the response rate of 81.8%. 58.3% were males, mean age was 36.7 years, 57.8% had < 1 year of mental illness with a mean of 2.2 years, and 90% were self-sufficient. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean DMFT (0.92) increased with age, duration of mental illness, and irregularity of oral hygiene habits (P<0.001). Mean OHI-S score was 3.3 and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean OHI-S score increased with age (P<0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the CPI score increased with age, duration of mental illness, and degree of helplessness (P<0.001). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrates low caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene, and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment.

PMID: 17217213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Public school programme for fissure sealants and its effect on the private d...
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[Public school programme for fissure sealants and its effect on the private demand for restorative dentistry for temporary teeth]

Aten Primaria. 2006 Nov 30;38(9):496-500

Authors: Prados Atienza MB, Mu&#xF1;oz Soto E, Bravo M, González Rodríguez MP, Prados Sánchez E

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of a public school odontological programme of fissure sealants on the private demand for restorative dentistry for temporary teeth. DESIGN: A longitudinal, comparative study was conducted. It had 2 groups, control and sealant, with 3 years monitoring. SETTING: Santa Fe Health Area, concretely in the local districts (LD) of Santa Fe and Pinos Puente, Granada, Spain, starting in the school year 1996/1997. PARTICIPANTS: The sealant group was selected from the Santa Fe LD (which had a public programme of fissure sealants) (n=129); and the control group (n=120), from Pinos Puente LD. INTERVENTIONS: All the school students were examined (+ report issued) in the schools every 6 months for 3 years. The sealant group children received at the health centre fissure sealants in their first permanent molars. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The restorations performed in temporary teeth for both groups were analysed (x+/-EE) during the study at 12, 24, and 36 month follow-up. RESULTS. The sealant group had a significantly greater increase in restorative treatment for temporary teeth (P< .05) than the Control group at all monitoring points. CONCLUSIONS: A public programme of fissure sealants raised private restorative treatment for temporary teeth.

PMID: 17194353 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleEarly childhood caries and dental plaque among 1-3-year-olds in Tehran, Iran.
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Early childhood caries and dental plaque among 1-3-year-olds in Tehran, Iran.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006 Dec;24(4):177-81

Authors: Mohebbi SZ, Virtanen JI, Vahid-Golpayegani M, Vehkalahti MM

The association between plaque and caries in older children and adults has been poor, however, some studies show that there may be a relationship in younger children. The aim was to study the relationships between dental caries and dental plaque among 12-36-month-olds in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional study among a stratified random sample of 504 children aged one to three years from 18 public health centres in Tehran. Mothers were interviewed about their child's date and order of birth, gender, primary caregiver, the mother's age and the educational level of both parents. Dental examination was carried out according to the WHO criteria. Early childhood caries (ECC) was defined as the presence of any dmf teeth. Dental plaque was visually inspected on the labial surfaces of upper central incisors. Data analysis included Chi-square test, t -test, anova and logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of ECC ranged from 3 to 33% depending on age group, with a mean dt of 1.1 for 26- to 36-month-olds. No gender-differences existed in ECC prevalence and mean dt. Dental plaque was visible on at least one index tooth for 65-75% of the children. Presence of ECC was related to the presence of dental plaque (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.3) when controlling for background factors by means of logistic regression. The high occurrence of visible plaque and rather high ECC prevalence call for improvement in oral health promotion programs of the children.

PMID: 17183180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleOral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari...
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Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006 Sep;24(3):146-51

Authors: Yee R, David J, Khadka R

The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant (P < 0.005). In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

PMID: 17065783 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Study on the frequency of caries and associated factors in type 1 diabetes m...
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[Study on the frequency of caries and associated factors in type 1 diabetes mellitus]

Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2006 Jun;50(3):515-22

Authors: do Amaral FM, Ramos PG, Ferreira SR

Subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more prone to certain disturbances of oral cavity but there are controversies concerning caries. This cross-sectional study investigated the frequency of caries and associated factors, in a sample of population with or without type 1 DM, including non-diabetic (53 women, 31 men) and 30 diabetic subjects (19 women, 11 men) aged 17-28 years. Diagnosis of dental caries was based on the DMF-T index (D= decay; M= miss; F= fill; T= teeth); in addition, a plaque control record (PCR) was obtained. A preponderance of female sex was found within the groups studied but such proportions did not differ when comparing diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Mean ages were 21.0 +/- 2.2 and 19.5+/-1.8 years, respectively for subjects without and with DM (p< 0.05). Education level was higher in the non-diabetic group as well as the DMF-T index (10.5 +/-5.8 vs. 6.7+/-5.7, p< 0.01). Linear regression analysis (n= 114) showed significant associations of DMF-T with age, sucrose intake, daily frequency of tooth brushing, of dental floss use, PCR and of visits to the dentist. By ANOVA model with age as a covariate the non-diabetic condition (p= 0.047), sucrose index and PCR (r(2)= 0.820) were independently associated with the DMF-T. In the diabetic-specific model, with only the diabetic subjects included and sucrose index as a covariate, DM duration, fundus abnormality and PCR were significantly associated with the presence of caries (r(2)= 0.816). The sample of type 1 diabetic subjects suggest that they are less prone to caries than non-diabetics, despite having a higher frequency of meals, less tooth brushing and dental floss use. We speculate that DM duration may contribute to the occurrence of caries and restricted sucrose consumption to lower frequency of caries in diabetic subjects.

PMID: 16936993 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticlePsychometric properties and the prevalence, intensity and causes of oral impa...
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Psychometric properties and the prevalence, intensity and causes of oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP) in a population of older Tanzanians.

Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006;4:56

Authors: Kida IA, Astr&#xF8;m AN, Strand GV, Masalu JR, Tsakos G

BACKGROUND: The objective was to study whether a Kiswahili version of the OIDP (Oral Impacts on Daily Performance) inventory was valid and reliable for use in a population of older adults in urban and rural areas of Tanzania; and to assess the area specific prevalence, intensity and perceived causes of OIDP. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pwani region and in Dar es Salaam in 2004/2005. A two-stage stratified cluster sample design was utilized. Information became available for 511 urban and 520 rural subjects (mean age 62.9 years) who were interviewed and participated in a full mouth clinical examination in their own homes. RESULTS: The Kiswahili version of the weighted OIDP inventory preserved the overall concept of the original English version. Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 and 0.90 in urban and rural areas, respectively, and the OIDP inventory varied systematically in the expected direction with self-reported oral health measures. The respective prevalence of oral impacts was 51.2% and 62.1% in urban and rural areas. Problems with eating was the performance reported most frequently (42.5% in urban, 55.1% in rural) followed by cleaning teeth (18.2% in urban, 30.6% in rural). More than half of the urban and rural residents with impacts had very little, little and moderate impact intensity. The most frequently reported causes of impacts were toothache and loose teeth. CONCLUSION: The Kiswahili OIDP inventory had acceptable psychometric properties among non-institutionalized adults 50 years and above in Tanzania. The impacts affecting their performances were relatively common but not very severe.

PMID: 16934161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Comparison of reproducibility measurements for calibration of dental caries ...
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[Comparison of reproducibility measurements for calibration of dental caries epidemiological surveys]

Cad Saude Publica. 2006 Sep;22(9):1901-7

Authors: Assaf AV, Zanin L, Meneghim Mde C, Pereira AC, Ambrosano GM

This study compares three measurements (Kappa, general agreement percentage, or GAP, and dice index) used to determine the reproducibility of caries diagnosis in epidemiological surveys under different clinical diagnostic thresholds. Eleven examiners with previous experience in epidemiological surveys were submitted to a theoretical and clinical calibration process. Data analysis used two caries detection thresholds: World Health Organization (WHO) and WHO with the inclusion of initial enamel lesions (WHO + IL). Twenty-three children 6-7 years of age were examined, with and without caries. Mean values for Kappa index, GAP, and Dice were considered high (> 0.90), except for the dice index for the WHO + IL threshold (0.69). Since Kappa is an adjusted agreement index, it can be considered the instrument of choice for calibration of examiners. However, when it is impossible to use, the GAP is recommended together with the dice index in order to orient and improve examiners when examining caries lesions.

PMID: 16917587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleDental fluorosis in Brazil: a systematic review from 1993 to 2004.
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Dental fluorosis in Brazil: a systematic review from 1993 to 2004.

Cad Saude Publica. 2006 Sep;22(9):1809-16

Authors: da Cunha LF, Tomita NE

The current article proposes a reflection on several aspect pertaining to dental fluorosis in Brazil, based on a systematic review of epidemiological surveys. The authors assess the prevalence and degrees of severity found in different studies and show that in methodological terms, there is a need for progress in procedures for population-based studies on fluorosis. Despite the different data collection approaches, there is some consensus among the different studies as to the limited severity of fluorosis in Brazil, as well as its association with the independent variables age and socioeconomic status. The authors also highlight the importance of adding subjective aspects to the normative diagnosis as a contribution to public health policy decisions, since the use of exclusively clinical criteria gives dental fluorosis more space than society ascribes to it. There is a lack of empirical evidence to reassess the fluoride content in public water supplies, a method that is known to be necessary to improve dental caries epidemiological indicators.

PMID: 16917577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleDental caries prevalence in Brazilian schoolchildren resident in Japan.
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Dental caries prevalence in Brazilian schoolchildren resident in Japan.

J Oral Sci. 2006 Jun;48(2):51-7

Authors: Hashizume LN, Shinada K, Kawaguchi Y

The Brazilian community in Japan is the third largest of the ethnic groups within the Japanese population. However, the oral health condition of Brazilian schoolchildren resident in Japan has not been documented previously. This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren resident in Japan. The study population comprised 296 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years, attending Brazilian schools in Japan. Clinical examinations were performed by a single qualified examiner. The prevalence of dental caries found in this population was 64.9% (95% IC = 59.39 - 70.34%), the percentage of caries-free children being relatively high at 35.1% (95% IC = 29.7% - 40.6%). The mean decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth (T) index at age 12 was 1.75 (95% IC = 1.03 - 2.47), and the mean dmft at age 6 was 3.50 (95% IC = 2.43 - 4.57). The proportion of treated teeth was higher than that of decayed teeth in both dentitions. With regard to the distribution of dental caries experience, only 8.4% of all schoolchildren had a DMFT > 3, suggesting a polarization phenomenon of dental caries in this population. Although the prevalence of dental caries among Brazilian school-children resident in Japan is lower than that of their Japanese counterparts, oral health programs are necessary for those children in whom the disease is prevalent and have higher treatment needs.

PMID: 16858132 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleChair side simple caries activity test: Ora test.
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Chair side simple caries activity test: Ora test.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006 Jun;24(2):76-9

Authors: Bhasin S, Sudha P, Anegundi RT

Oratest, a caries activity test was performed on 48 school going children of Mangalore city to estimate efficacy of the test. High statistical significance was found when the means of control and test group were compared [gamma = 0.913]. The Oratest is found to be a simple chair side, less time consuming and inexpensive caries activity test.

PMID: 16823231 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleGenetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n propylthiouracil: a new risk d...
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Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n propylthiouracil: a new risk determinant for dental caries in children.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006 Jun;24(2):63-8

Authors: Rupesh S, Nayak UA

The aims of the present study were to contrast the prevalence of dental caries in children with different genetic sensitivity levels to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and to determine the taste quality and taste intensity preferences of food products among the taster and nontaster groups. Overall caries experience (dmfs/DMFS) was significantly higher for nontasters than tasters. Caries experience on the available surfaces (dfs/DFS) was found to be significantly higher in nontasters than in medium tasters and in medium tasters than in supertasters (r=-0.41, P < 0.001). Majority of the nontasters were sweet likers and preferred strong tasting food products, while majority of the supertasters were sweet dislikers and preferred weak tastes. There was a significant increase in the overall caries experience in the population, as the genetic ability to detect PROP taste decreased ( P < 0.001). After all associated factors (age, gender, race, number of teeth and OHI-S) were controlled; multiple linear regression analyses revealed that taste was the only variable significantly related to overall caries experience.

PMID: 16823229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleValidation of an English version of the Child-OIDP index, an oral health-rela...
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Validation of an English version of the Child-OIDP index, an oral health-related quality of life measure for children.

Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006;4:38

Authors: Yusuf H, Gherunpong S, Sheiham A, Tsakos G

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Child-OIDP for use among children in the UK and report on the prevalence of oral impacts in a sample of schoolchildren in Westminster. METHODS: Children aged 10-11 years in the final year of primary school (year 6) were selected from seven schools where annual screenings are carried out. A total of 228 children participated (99% response rate). A clinical examination was conducted followed by a questionnaire designed to measure oral health-related quality of life in children, namely the Child-OIDP. The psychometric properties of the Child-OIDP were evaluated in terms of face, content and concurrent validity in addition to internal and test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The Child-OIDP revealed excellent validity and good reliability. Weighted Kappa was 0.82. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.58. The index showed significant associations with perceived oral treatment needs and perceived satisfaction with mouth and oral health status (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that the Child-OIDP is a valid and reliable index to be used among 10-11 year old schoolchildren in the UK.

PMID: 16813660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleMotivating mothers to prevent caries: confirming the beneficial effect of cou...
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Motivating mothers to prevent caries: confirming the beneficial effect of counseling.

J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Jun;137(6):789-93

Authors: Weinstein P, Harrison R, Benton T

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a motivational interviewing (MI) counseling visit with traditional health education for mothers of young children at high risk of developing dental caries. METHODS: The authors enrolled 240 infants aged 6 to 18 months and their mothers in the study and randomly assigned them to MI or traditional health education (control) groups. Mothers in the control group received a pamphlet and watched a videotape. Those in the MI group received the pamphlet and watched the videotape, as well as received an MI counseling session and six follow-up telephone calls during the first year. There were no interventions in year 2. RESULTS: After two years, children in the MI group exhibited significantly less new caries (decayed or filled surfaces) than those in the control group (that is, a protective effect of MI) (odds ratio = 0.35, 95 percent confidence interval = 0.15 to 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: MI is a promising approach that warrants further attention in a variety of dental contexts. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study show that MI has a protective effect with regard to the development of early childhood caries. One reason for this clinical effect is greater compliance with recommended fluoride varnish treatment regimens in families who received MI counseling compared with families who received traditional education.

PMID: 16803808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe association between sickle cell disease and dental caries in African Amer...
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The association between sickle cell disease and dental caries in African Americans.

Spec Care Dentist. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):95-100

Authors: Laurence B, George D, Woods D, Shosanya A, Katz RV, Lanzkron S, Diener-West M, Powe N

This study sought to determine whether there was an association between sickle cell disease (SCD) and dental caries in African-American adults. A sample of 102 African-American adult patients with SCD from Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, were matched to 103 African-American adult subjects, who did not have SCD. The match was by age, gender and recruitment location. Each subject underwent a standardized oral examination as well as an interview to ascertain risk factors for dental caries. For individuals with incomes of less than dollars 15,000, subjects with SCD had more decayed (10.36 versus 1.58) and fewer filled (2.86 versus 8.45) surfaces compared to subjects without SCD with both differences being statistically significant (p<0.05) after adjusting for age and gender. The results suggest that low-income African Americans with SCD may be at increased risk for dental caries and are less likely to receive treatment with a restoration.

PMID: 16774185 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticlePrevalence pattern of dental caries in the primary dentition among school chi...
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Prevalence pattern of dental caries in the primary dentition among school children.

Indian J Dent Res. 2005 Oct-Dec;16(4):140-6

Authors: Saravanan S, Madivanan I, Subashini B, Subhashini B, Felix JW

The purpose of the study was to assess the pattern of prevalence of dental caries in the primary dentition among 5 year old children. The area of study was urban Pondicherry and the study population consisted of 1009 school children of both sexes (527 boys and 482 girls). A simple random sampling method was used to select the schools. Dental caries was assessed by the Dentition status and Treatment Need (WHO 1997). Statistical analysis was done using the Proportion test. The prevalence of caries was 44.4% among the study population, being higher in the boys (P < 0.05); In Mandibular arch in both the sexes (boys P < 0.05, girls P < 0.01); in posterior teeth (both sex wise & arch wise). Comparison of caries among anterior teeth (Boys vs Girls) [corrected] and posterior teeth (upper vs. lower) revealed higher caries prevalence in Maxillary anterior teeth (P < 0.001) and Mandibular posterior teeth (P < 0.001). In both the sexes and arches, primary second molars showed higher caries prevalence.

PMID: 16761706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Cost of fluoridating the public water supply: a study case in the city of S&...
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[Cost of fluoridating the public water supply: a study case in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985-2003]

Cad Saude Publica. 2006 Jun;22(6):1237-46

Authors: Frias AC, Narvai PC, Araújo ME, Zilbovicius C, Antunes JL

The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of fluoridating the public water supply in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1985 to 2003. Cost calculation for fluoridation of the public water supply used the following: capital cost of initial installation, chemical product (hydrofluosilicic acid), system's operational cost (maintenance, electricity, and human resources), and monitoring fluoride levels. Fluoridation was effective, since there was a decrease of 73% in dental caries in 12-year-olds--mean DMF was 6.47 (6.12-6.82) in 1986, having decreased to 1.75 (1.48-2.92) in 2002. In this age group, 40% of children presented DMF = 0 in 2002. Average cost per inhabitant/year for 2003 was R$ 0.08 (USD 0.03). The accumulated cost for 18 years of implementation and maintenance of the fluoridation system was R$ 1.44 (USD 0.97) per capita.

PMID: 16751963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleA two-year randomized clinical trial of chlorhexidine varnish on dental carie...
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A two-year randomized clinical trial of chlorhexidine varnish on dental caries in Chinese preschool children.

J Dent Res. 2006 Jun;85(6):557-9

Authors: Du MQ, Tai BJ, Jiang H, Lo EC, Fan MW, Bian Z

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of six-monthly professional applications of chlorhexidine varnish on the prevention of dental caries in primary molars in Chinese preschool children. In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 334 children aged 4-5 years were randomly divided into two groups. Children in the test group received six-monthly applications of a 40% chlorhexidine varnish, and the control children received a placebo varnish. Caries status of the children was assessed by two calibrated examiners at baseline and after 24 months, according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The two-year mean caries increments in the test and the control group children were 1.0 and 1.6 decayed, missing, or filled molar surfaces (dmfs-molar), respectively, a 37.3% reduction (t test, p = 0.036). No side-effects were found. It was concluded that six-monthly applications of chlorhexidine varnish were effective in reducing the incidence of dental caries in primary molars.

PMID: 16723655 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleIntroducing a clinical-behavioural scoring system for children's oral hygiene.
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Introducing a clinical-behavioural scoring system for children's oral hygiene.

Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2006 Jan-Apr;8(1):14-24

Authors: Medina-Sol&#xED;s CE, Maupomé G, Segovia-Villanueva A, Casanova-Rosado AJ, Vallejos-Sánchez AA, Casanova-Rosado JF

OBJECTIVES: Developing and testing a clinical-behavioural scoring system for assessing children's oral hygiene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One clinical variable (the presence of dental plaque, measured using Silness and Loe's index) and one behavioural variable (self-reported tooth brushing frequency) were combined into secondary data analysis of research databases for 3-6-year-olds and 6-13-year-olds in a Mexican community. The combined scoring is an ordinal scale that depicts suitable, moderate and inadequate hygiene. Blinded dental examiners also collected dmft/DMFT data in standardised conditions. Data was analysed with Spearman's rho, Kruskall-Wallis, non-parametric tests for trends and Pearson's chi2 tests. RESULTS: 1303 children aged 3-6 years old and 1644 children aged 6-13 years old participated in the study. Clear relationships existed between the combined scoring system and dmft (p < 0.01) and between the scoring system and DMFT (p < 0.01), suggesting that the combined clinical-behavioural scoring system is a reasonably accurate measurement of the relationship between caries experience and oral hygiene in children in the given setting. CONCLUSIONS: The combined clinical-behavioural scoring system is a simple, easy-to-use tool that incorporates clinical and behavioural data commonly found in dental systems. Whether the clinical-behavioural scoring system can be generalised remains to be established.

PMID: 16703959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticlePrevalence of dental caries, severity, and pattern in age 6 to 7-year-old chi...
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Prevalence of dental caries, severity, and pattern in age 6 to 7-year-old children in a selected community in Saudi Arabia.

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2006 May 1;7(2):46-54

Authors: Al-Malik MI, Rehbini YA

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and pattern of dental caries in 6 to 7-year-old children in military primary schools in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A random sample of 300 children (6 to 7-year-olds) was drawn from six schools of military dependents. Clinical examinations were carried out under standardized conditions by two trained and calibrated examiners (MAM) and (YR). Caries were diagnosed using the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) criteria. RESULTS: Caries were diagnosed in 288 (96%) of the children, and only 4% were clinically caries free. Mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) for the 300 children was 8.06 (+ 4.04) per child and mean decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (dmfs) was 23.18 (+ 15.64). The teeth most affected by caries were mandibular primary second molars (83.35%), and the least affected were mandibular primary central incisors (1.15%). CONCLUSIONS: The level of caries was higher than seen in children of equivalent age in other studies. The level of caries is expected to increase in permanent dentition. The above findings stress the need for an effective program of oral prevention in these children, such as a school dental health education program for children and their parents in order to improve their oral health status.

PMID: 16685294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Declining caries rate in a municipality in northwestern São Paulo State...
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[Declining caries rate in a municipality in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, 1998-2004]

Cad Saude Publica. 2006 May;22(5):1035-41

Authors: Martins RJ, Garbin CA, Garbin AJ, Moimaz SA, Saliba O

This study analyzes the DMF and DEF indices, SiC index, and percentage of caries-free public schoolchildren in the municipality of Bilac, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004. The same methodology was employed (WHO-1997) in all the surveys. Kappa test was carried out at each stage, and the minimal and maximum inter-examiner agreement values obtained were 0.86 and 0.89, respectively, while minimal intra-examiner agreement values were 0.91. DEF indices decreased slightly in the years 1998 and 2004. There was a continuous reduction in the DMF index, as well as the phenomenon of polarization at 12 years of age. The rate was 5.28 in 1998, decreasing to 4.11 in 2000, 3.47 in 2002, and 2.62 in 2004. Inversely, the proportion of caries-free 5-year-olds increased from 37.9% in 1998 to 40% in 2000 and 2002 and 45.3% in 2004. In conclusion, there has been a decrease in dental caries in 12 year-old public schoolchildren in the municipality.

PMID: 16680356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleDental caries prevalence among preschool children of Hubli: Dharwad city.
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Dental caries prevalence among preschool children of Hubli: Dharwad city.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006 Mar;24(1):19-22

Authors: Mahejabeen R, Sudha P, Kulkarni SS, Anegundi R

The prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in the age group of 3-5 years was estimated among 1500 children of Hubli-Dharwad city. The attitude of mothers towards their children's oral health and its relation with caries prevalence was noted among 200 subjects. The prevalence of dental caries was 54.1%. The attitude of mothers towards children's oral health made a statistical difference in the mean dmft levels.

PMID: 16582526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe military oral health care system as a model for eliminating disparities i...
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The military oral health care system as a model for eliminating disparities in oral health.

J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Mar;137(3):372-8

Authors: Hyman JJ, Reid BC, Mongeau SW, York AK

BACKGROUND: Healthy People (HP) 2010 is a national health promotion and disease prevention initiative of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The HP 2010 report highlighted a range of racial/ethnic disparities in dental health. A substantial portion of these disparities appear to be explained by differences in access to care. Members of the U.S. military have universal access to care that also has a compulsory component. The authors conducted a study to investigate the extent to which disparities in progress toward achievement of HP 2010 objectives were lower among the military population and to compare the oral health of the military population with that of the civilian population. METHODS: The participants in this study were non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black males aged 18 to 44 years. They were drawn from the Tri-Service Comprehensive Oral Health Survey (10,869 including 899 recruits who participated in the TSCOHS Recruit Study) and the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (4,779). RESULTS: We found no disparities between black and white adults in untreated caries and recent dental visit rates in the military population. Disparities in missing teeth were much lower among military personnel than among civilians. CONCLUSIONS: A universal access-to-care system that incorporated an aspect of compulsory treatment displayed little to no racial disparity in relevant oral health outcomes. This demonstrates that it is possible for large, diverse populations to have much lower levels of disparities in oral health even when universal access to care is not provided until the patient is 18 or 19 years of age.

PMID: 16570471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleOral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood.
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Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood.

J Dent Res. 2006 Apr;85(4):339-43

Authors: Broadbent JM, Thomson WM, Poulton R

According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health.

PMID: 16567555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleCarbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.
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Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

J Dent Res. 2006 Mar;85(3):262-6

Authors: Sohn W, Burt BA, Sowers MR

We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

PMID: 16498075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleDental caries in young male adults: prevalence, severity and associated factors.
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Dental caries in young male adults: prevalence, severity and associated factors.

Braz Oral Res. 2005 Oct-Dec;19(4):249-55

Authors: Amaral MA, Nakama L, Conrado CA, Matsuo T

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as the needs for dental treatment in 18-year-old males from Maring&#xE1;, PR, Brazil. The association of dental caries experience with socioeconomic variables was also tested. A cross sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 241 conscripts of the Brazilian Army. The adopted diagnosis criteria were those proposed by the World Health Organization. A socioeconomic questionnaire was utilized to determine family income and the criterion of the Brazil Economic Classification of the National Association of Research Enterprises. Associations among caries prevalence, DMF-T index, treatment needs and socioeconomic variables were evaluated by means of the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Caries prevalence was 82.6% and the mean DMF-T index was 4.6. Only a mean of 0.8 tooth per individual presented treatment needs. Significant statistical differences were found in caries prevalence and severity (DMF-T). The worst results were observed in the groups of lower income and purchasing power, indicating a need for the implementation of social policies that address these populations aiming at diminishing the existing differences in the health-disease process indicators. On the other hand, treatment needs were only associated to the Brazil Economic Classification Criterion variable (p < 0.05).

PMID: 16491251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleFluoride varnish efficacy in preventing early childhood caries.
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Fluoride varnish efficacy in preventing early childhood caries.

J Dent Res. 2006 Feb;85(2):172-6

Authors: Weintraub JA, Ramos-Gomez F, Jue B, Shain S, Hoover CI, Featherstone JD, Gansky SA

To determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% NaF, Duraphat, Colgate) added to caregiver counseling to prevent early childhood caries, we conducted a two-year randomized, dental-examiner-masked clinical trial. Initially, 376 caries-free children, from low-income Chinese or Hispanic San Francisco families, were enrolled (mean age +/- standard deviation, 1.8 +/- 0.6 yrs). All families received counseling, and children were randomized to the following groups: no fluoride varnish, fluoride varnish once/year, or fluoride varnish twice/year. An unexpected protocol deviation resulted in some children receiving less active fluoride varnish than assigned. Intent-to-treat analyses showed a fluoride varnish protective effect in caries incidence, p < 0.01. Analyzing the number of actual, active fluoride varnish applications received resulted in a dose-response effect, p < 0.01. Caries incidence was higher for 'counseling only' vs. 'counseling + fluoride varnish assigned once/year' (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.19-4.08) and 'twice/year' (OR = 3.77, 95% CI 1.88-7.58). No related adverse events were reported. Fluoride varnish added to caregiver counseling is efficacious in reducing early childhood caries incidence.

PMID: 16434737 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Oral health of institutionalized elderly in the eastern zone of São Pau...
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[Oral health of institutionalized elderly in the eastern zone of São Paulo, Brazil, 1999]

Cad Saude Publica. 2005 Nov-Dec;21(6):1709-16

Authors: Carneiro RM, da Silva DD, de Sousa Mda L, Wada RS

The objective was to verify oral health conditions in institutionalized elderly people in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, through epidemiological analysis. The sample consisted of 293 subjects and was stratified according to age (65-74 years and over 75) and gender. Epidemiological analysis was conducted according to WHO criteria to determine prevalence of oral disease. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to check differences between strata. Of the subjects evaluated, 64.8% were women and 65.2% were over 75 years old. DMFT was 30.8 with tooth loss of 96.3%, and this percentage was statistically greater for women (97.0%); 94.7% showed calculus as a major degree of periodontal condition, and only 1.8% presented healthy periodontal conditions and 33.3% presented loss of attachment ranging from 6 to 8 mm. Some 48.1% used total upper and 22.5% total lower prostheses. Edentulism was 68.3%. The data indicate unsatisfactory clinical conditions, as shown by the high CPO-D index and high percentage of edentulism.

PMID: 16410855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Early childhood caries: prevalence and risk factors in 4-year-old preschoole...
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[Early childhood caries: prevalence and risk factors in 4-year-old preschoolers in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil]

Cad Saude Publica. 2005 Nov-Dec;21(6):1695-700

Authors: Ribeiro AG, de Oliveira AF, Rosenblatt A

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC), in a cohort of children of low socioeconomic status at 48 months of age in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, in relation to feeding practices, oral health behaviors, fluoride exposure, and enamel defects. 224 children were clinically examined in the Knee-Knee position at the children's home under natural light. Teeth were dried and cleaned with gauze, and caries (WHO index) and defect (DDE Index) were determined. Questionnaires on children's oral hygiene and dietary history were completed by parents or guardians. The SAS statistical program was used with the Mantel-Haenszel tests. The results showed a prevalence of 10.7% and 33.0% for ECC and SECC, respectively. Of all the children examined, 79.9% had at least one tooth with enamel defects, which was the only statistically significant factor (p < 0.001) for ECC. The association between enamel defects and ECC indicates that alterations in the enamel surface may cause progression of dental caries.

PMID: 16410853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Oral health of Brazilian elderly: a systematic review of epidemiologic statu...
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[Oral health of Brazilian elderly: a systematic review of epidemiologic status and dental care access]

Cad Saude Publica. 2005 Nov-Dec;21(6):1665-75

Authors: Moreira Rda S, Nico LS, Tomita NE, Ruiz T

Population aging and declining birth rate have significantly altered the Brazilian age structure pyramid. In parallel with demographic transition, epidemiological transition is altering morbidity-mortality profiles, without adequate health support for the elderly population group. By searching databases, the objective of this study was a systemic literature review from 1986 to 2004 concerning the most prevalent oral problems experienced by elderly Brazilians, aimed at revealing the main obstacles for accessing health services. Mean DMFT index values in this study ranged from 25 to 31. Most articles reported a high percentage of edentulism. The main barriers for access to dental services were poor education, low income, and scarcity of public oral health services. Brazilian elderly oral health is thus precarious, with high edentulism rates, periodontal problems, decayed teeth, and great need for prostheses, reflecting the historical inefficacy of public dental services, limited to serial extractions and emergency services, based on the curative model.

PMID: 16410850 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleClinical evaluation of dental and periodontal status in a group of oncologica...
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Clinical evaluation of dental and periodontal status in a group of oncological patients before chemotherapy.

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006 Jan;11(1):E17-21

Authors: L&#xF3;pez-Galindo MP, Bagán JV, Jiménez-Soriano Y, Alpiste F, Camps C

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dental status of 88 cancer patients before chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients with cancer in different body locations were studied and compared with a control group. Dental plaque was assessed by means of the Silness and Löe index, dental status with the DMFT index, and periodontal status with the modified CPI index. RESULTS: In the oncological patients the mean Silness and Löe index was 1.28-/+0.11. Patients showed multiple missing teeth (mean number 7.55-/+0.80); the mean number of decayed teeth was 2.10-/+0.36; and the mean number of filled teeth was 2.27-/+0.37. As to periodontal status, the mean modified CPI index was 1.45-/+0.11. In the control group, the mean Silness and Löe index was 0.94-/+0.00. The mean number of decayed teeth was 1.21-/+0.25; the mean number of missing teeth was 4.97-/+0.67; and the mean number of filled teeth was 4.82-/+0.44. The mean modified CPI index was 1.29-/+0.10. CONCLUSIONS: Oncological patients in our study showed more dental plaque versus healthy patients and more decayed and missing teeth. However, patients in the control group showed more filled teeth than cancer patients. Periodontal status as determined by the modified CPI index was similar in both patient groups.

PMID: 16388287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleRisk factors of early childhood caries in a Southeast Asian population.
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Risk factors of early childhood caries in a Southeast Asian population.

J Dent Res. 2006 Jan;85(1):85-8

Authors: van Palenstein Helderman WH, Soe W, van 't Hof MA

A retrospective cohort study on ECC and associated factors was conducted among mothers with 25- to 30-month-old infants in a community where prolonged breastfeeding was common practice. All infants who consumed sugary supplementary food or rice that was pre-chewed by the mother, or who fell asleep with the breast nipple in their mouths, had ECC. Infants without those habits, and who were breastfed up to 12 months, had no ECC. Breastfeeding during the day beyond the age of 12 months was not associated with ECC, but infants who were breastfed at night > 2 times had an OR for ECC of 35 (CI 6-186), and those who were exposed to > 15 min per nocturnal feeding had an OR for ECC of 100 (CI 10-995). The present study indicates that, in this population, besides the consumption of sugars and pre-chewed rice, nocturnal breastfeeding after the age of 12 months poses a risk of developing ECC.

PMID: 16373687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleSelf-assessed dental status, oral behavior, DMF, and dental anxiety.
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Self-assessed dental status, oral behavior, DMF, and dental anxiety.

J Dent Educ. 2005 Dec;69(12):1385-9

Authors: Samorodnitzky GR, Levin L

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between self-assessed dental status, oral behavior, dental anxiety, and DMF scores. The study was conducted among young army personnel (eighteen to twenty-one years old) who arrived at a single military dental clinic for dental screening. A questionnaire was used to collect the data anonymously. The questionnaire included self-assessment of dental status and behavior, as well as the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). Dental caries status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). A total of 393 young adults were examined (98.3 percent response rate). Approximately one-third brushed their teeth once a day or not at all. Of the participants, 10.7 percent assessed their dental status as "Poor" and 46.3 percent as "Fair." Furthermore, 25.5 percent assessed their dental treatment needs as high. The average DAS score was 7.14. The average DMF score was 6.2. There was a correlation between self-reported tooth status, participants' assessment of their dental treatment needs, and DMF score (p<0.0001). Anxious participants assessed their dental treatment needs as higher (p=0.05). The dental practitioner could ask patients to assess their dental status prior to treatment or appointment. These findings will help the practitioner to accomplish more effective time and patient management.

PMID: 16352775 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Association between primary dental care and municipal socioeconomic indicators]
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[Association between primary dental care and municipal socioeconomic indicators]

Rev Saude Publica. 2005 Dec;39(6):930-6

Authors: Fernandes LS, Peres MA

OBJECTIVE: To test associations between primary dental care indicators and municipal socioeconomic and dental service provision indicators. METHODS: An ecological study was carried out in the 293 municipalities of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2000 and 2003. The primary dental care indicators utilized were: (1) coverage; (2) the ratio between preventive dental procedures and the size of the population aged zero to 14 years; and (3) the ratio between the numbers of extractions of permanent teeth and individual dental procedures within primary dental care. The variables investigated were: number of dentists per 1,000 inhabitants; number of dentists within the public health service per 1,000 inhabitants; fluoridation of the water supply; child development index; human development index; and the size of the population in the municipality. Analyses were performed using the Kruskall-Wallis and Chi-square tests. The Spearman test was used to evaluate correlations between the variables. RESULTS:The coverage was 21.8%, the ratio of preventive dental procedures among the population aged zero to 14 years was 0.37 and the proportion of tooth extractions in relation to the total number of individual dental procedures was 11.9 %. Lower rates of tooth extraction were associated with higher numbers of dentists within the public health service (p<0.01). Higher rates of tooth extraction were associated with lower human development indices for the municipalities (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Greater coverage was associated with higher numbers of dentists within the public health system. Municipalities with worse socioeconomic conditions were associated with greater tooth extraction rates. Oral health policies must target municipalities that present worse socioeconomic indicators.

PMID: 16341403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleA job well done, but still a long way to go.
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A job well done, but still a long way to go.

J Am Dent Assoc. 2005 Nov;136(11):1506, 1508

Authors: Glick M

PMID: 16329407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleSealant and fluoride varnish in caries: a randomized trial.
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Sealant and fluoride varnish in caries: a randomized trial.

J Dent Res. 2005 Dec;84(12):1138-43

Authors: Bravo M, Montero J, Bravo JJ, Baca P, Llodra JC

Little is known about the effect of discontinuation of sealant or fluoride varnish. The purpose of this study was to compare sealant with fluoride varnish in the prevention of occlusal caries in permanent first molars of children over a nine-year period: 4 yrs for program evaluation plus 5 yrs of discontinuation. A clinical trial was conducted on three groups of six- to eight-year-old schoolchildren: a control group (n = 45); a group (n = 37) in which sealant was applied and reapplied up to 36 mos; and a group (n = 38) in which fluoride varnish was applied and re-applied up to 42 mos. Percent caries reduction was studied in these initially healthy molars with complete occlusal eruption: 129 (control), 113 (sealant), and 129 (varnish) molars met inclusion criteria. Of these, 76.7%, 26.6%, and 55.8% had developed occlusal caries at 9 yrs, which implies caries reductions of 65.4% (SE = 8.5%) for sealants vs. control and 27.3% (SE = 10.2%) for varnish vs. control. Furthermore, the varnish program was not effective during the discontinuation period.

PMID: 16304443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe prevalence of dental caries among international students at U.S. universi...
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The prevalence of dental caries among international students at U.S. universities.

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005 Nov 15;6(4):124-35

Authors: Woodmansey KF

Last year 572,509 international students studied at U.S. universities. The dental health of these students is as diverse as the countries from which they come. This paper discusses the known prevalence and causative factors of dental disease among these students, reported global variations in oral health, and barriers to receiving care faced by international students while in the U.S. The author recommends greater appreciation of the dental needs of this population by scholastic administrators and suggests further research to better quantify the dental needs of this population.

PMID: 16299614 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleFetal alcohol syndrome: anthropometric and oral health status.
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Fetal alcohol syndrome: anthropometric and oral health status.

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005 Nov 15;6(4):101-15

Authors: Naidoo S, Chikte U, Laubscher R, Lombard C

The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric measures and oral health status of children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and compare them to matched controls. The sample of 90 cases (children diagnosed with FAS) and 90 controls were matched for age, gender, and social class. The mean age of the cases was 8.9 years with the controls slightly older at 9.1 years. The results of the anthropometric measurements in respect of weight, height, and head circumference showed significantly lower values for the FAS children when compared to the controls. Several physical abnormalities described in children with FAS were seen in this study. Some of these abnormalities seen in the FAS children included deformities in the small joints of the hand, altered palmar creases, and malformation of the ears. The prevalence of enamel opacities between FAS and controls was not significantly different and averaged around 15% for both groups. More than three quarters of both the cases and the controls demonstrated the presence of plaque and almost two-thirds demonstrated gingival bleeding on probing. FAS patients had statistically significantly (p<0.001) more dentofacial anomalies than the controls. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) score for the FAS sample was slightly higher, though not significantly different from that of the controls, and the decayed component (d) made up the largest part of the index in both groups.

PMID: 16299612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleAssessment of DMFT and enamel hypoplasia among junior high school children in...
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Assessment of DMFT and enamel hypoplasia among junior high school children in Iran.

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005 Nov 15;6(4):85-92

Authors: Daneshkazemi AR, Davari A

AIM: The main purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and enamel hypoplasia in 12-year old students in junior high school in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in 2001 on 1,223 12-year old students, which were randomly selected in Yazd and Hadi-Shahr, Iran. A questionnaire was designed to record the status of the teeth along with the occupational and educational levels of parents. Data was analyzed using SPSS software, the Chi-square test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: The mean DMFT score was 1.8 +/- 1.75 and 28.6% of the students were caries-free. There was no significant relationship between DMFT and the rate of dental caries with parents' education and occupation. The percentage of enamel hypoplasia was 32.7%. No statistically significant relationships were found between hypoplasia and DMFT with regard to gender. The relationship between enamel hypoplasia with DMFT score and dental caries was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: In the present study findings for DMFT scores in 12-year old junior high school children are higher than global standards according to the World Health Organization (WHO) references for the year 2000. There was a strong association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries, and this subject suggests early diagnosis of enamel defects, health education programs, and suitable treatments should be emphasized in junior high school-aged children.

PMID: 16299610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleFor debate: problems with the DMF index pertinent to dental caries data analy...
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For debate: problems with the DMF index pertinent to dental caries data analysis.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2005 Dec;33(6):400-9

Authors: Broadbent JM, Thomson WM

The Decayed, Missing, Filled (DMF) index has been used for over 50 years and is well established as the key measure of caries experience in dental epidemiology. Despite its long history of use, there is debate about the most appropriate number of surfaces to include for a missing tooth. Assigning the maximum possible value for the 'M' component of DMFS (Surfaces) leads to overestimation of an individual's caries experience, and in any associated comparisons of in-caries experience, whereas assigning the minimum possible value for the 'M' component has the opposite effect. Alternative methods of assigning the number of caries-affected surfaces for an extracted tooth are considered. The net caries increment and adjusted caries increment (common methods of correction of the crude increment measure for reversals) are discussed, along with incidence density, a measure of caries extent. Problems exist with the adjusted caries increment, particularly among cohorts with low mean baseline caries experience. Development of an alternative method of estimating the relationship of 'true' and 'examiner' reversals is advocated, as well as greater utilization of incidence density in dental epidemiology.

PMID: 16262607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleLongitudinal analysis of heritability for dental caries traits.
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Longitudinal analysis of heritability for dental caries traits.

J Dent Res. 2005 Nov;84(11):1047-51

Authors: Bretz WA, Corby PM, Schork NJ, Robinson MT, Coelho M, Costa S, Melo Filho MR, Weyant RJ, Hart TC

The role of genetic and environmental factors on dental caries progression in young children was determined. A detailed caries assessment was performed in 2 examinations on 314 pairs of twins initially 1.5 to 8 years old. Surface-based caries prevalence rates (SBCPR) and lesion severity (LSI) were computed. Heritability estimates were calculated by SOLAR software. Analyses were performed on all ages combined and by age group (1.5-< 4; 4-6; > 6). Overall heritability estimates (H) of net increments SBCPRs were H = 30.0 (p < 0.0001), and were greatest for the youngest (H = 30.0) and oldest groups (H = 46.3). Overall LSI heritability estimates [H = 36.1 (p < 0.0001)] were also greatest for the youngest (H = 51.2) and oldest groups (H = 50.6). Similar findings were found for net increments of occlusal surfaces and deep dentinal lesions SBCPRs (H = 46.4-56.2). These findings are consistent with a significant genetic contribution to dental caries progression and severity in both emerging primary and permanent dentitions.

PMID: 16246939 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleA prospective, randomized clinical study on the effects of an amine fluoride/...
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A prospective, randomized clinical study on the effects of an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste/mouthrinse on plaque, gingivitis and initial caries lesion development in orthodontic patients.

Eur J Orthod. 2006 Feb;28(1):8-12

Authors: &#xD8;gaard B, Alm AA, Larsson E, Adolfsson U

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of combined use of a toothpaste/mouthrinse containing amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (AmF/SnF2; meridol) on the development of white spot lesions, plaque, and gingivitis on maxillary anterior teeth in orthodontic patients. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study with 115 orthodontic patients (42 males and 73 females, average age 14.4 years, drop outs 18) was designed. Group A (50) brushed twice daily with an AmF/SnF2 toothpaste (1400 ppm F) and rinsed every evening with an AmF/SnF2 solution (250 ppm F). Group B (47) brushed twice daily with a sodium fluoride (NaF) toothpaste (1400 ppm F) and rinsed every evening with a NaF solution (250 ppm F). Visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI) and white spot lesion index (WSL) were recorded on the six maxillary anterior teeth at bonding and after debonding, and evaluated with t tests. In group A no significant differences between bonding and debonding were recorded for WSL (1.02 +/- 0.08 versus 1.05 +/- 0.13, P = 0.14), VPI (0.10 +/- 0.21 versus 0.12 +/- 0.21, P = 0.66) or GBI (0.13 +/- 0.21 versus 0.16 +/- 0.22, P = 0.47), whereas statistically significant differences were found in group B between bonding and debonding for WSL (1.00 +/- 0.02 versus 1.08 +/- 0.17, P = 0.01), VPI (0.06 +/- 0.13 versus 0.17 +/- 0.25, P = 0.01) and GBI (0.06 +/- 0.12 versus 0.16 +/- 0.21, P = 0.01). The increase in lesions on the upper anterior teeth was 4.3 per cent in group A and 7.2 per cent in group B. It was concluded that the combined use of an AmF/SnF2 toothpaste/mouthrinse had a slightly more inhibitory effect on white spot lesion development, plaque and gingivitis on maxillary anterior teeth during fixed orthodontic treatment compared with NaF.

PMID: 16230329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe effectiveness and estimated costs of the access to baby and child dentist...
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The effectiveness and estimated costs of the access to baby and child dentistry program in Washington State.

J Am Dent Assoc. 2005 Sep;136(9):1257-63

Authors: Kobayashi M, Chi D, Coldwell SE, Domoto P, Milgrom P

OBJECTIVES: The authors estimated the effectiveness of the Access to Baby and Child Dentistry (ABCD) program as a tool to improve the oral health of children, and they measured its costs. ABCD is an effort to increase the utilization of dental care by Medicaid-enrolled children younger than 6 years. METHODS: The authors compared the oral health of third-grade children in Spokane County Wash. (ABCD) with that of children in Pierce County (non-ABCD). They then compared the expenditures of ABCD with those associated with alternative dental care interventions. RESULTS: Children in Spokane County had better oral health than did the children in Pierce County. The authors also found that the ABCD program increased mean dental care costs by $8.17 per user over costs in Pierce County, and the program cost a mean of $5.33 per user in outreach and dentist and staff training costs. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that ABCD improved the oral health of all third graders, including those not eligible or enrolled in the program. Increased expenditures were attributable mainly to outreach and training costs. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Programs such as ABCD, carried out collaboratively by component societies, health districts, dental schools and Medicaid, have the potential to increase access to care and improve health.

PMID: 16196230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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