Medical Dictionary     Orthodontics Definition    Send this page


  Free Full Text References 22 Nov 2014


Free Full Text ArticleFacemask therapy with miniplate implant anchorage in a patient with maxillary...
Related Articles

Facemask therapy with miniplate implant anchorage in a patient with maxillary hypoplasia.

Chin Med J (Engl). 2007 Aug 5;120(15):1372-5

Authors: Zhou YH, Ding P, Lin Y, Qiu LX

PMID: 17711747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleMaxillary corticotomy and extraoral orthopedic traction in mature teenage pat...
Related Articles

Maxillary corticotomy and extraoral orthopedic traction in mature teenage patients: a case report.

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2007;8(5):76-84

Authors: Pelo S, Boniello R, Gasparini G, Longobardi G

AIM: The authors' propose to combine the reverse pull headgear with a Delaire type face mask and a maxillary corticotomy to treat a Class III non-growing patient with maxillary retrusion. The aim of this report is to present two cases in which this treatment strategy was successful. BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest the majority of Class III dento-skeletal malocclusions have components of maxillary retrusion. Early treatment of these patients with maxillary protraction devices have shown promising results. Facemask therapy has some important limits. Most important is the optimal timing of treatment between the ages of six to ten years. Closure of the maxillary suture occurs as a child ages which results in an increase of maxillary resistance to protraction. REPORT: A proposed therapy carried out in orthodontic and surgical phases was used in the treatment of two young patients. They were both beyond the optimal age range for the application of the orthopedic device (a girl 15 years old and a boy 16 years old), however, they had not reached the necessary skeletal maturity for orthognathic surgery. SUMMARY: The described technique has the advantage of being quick and easy to perform with a low surgical risk yielding satisfactory results after 15-20 days of therapy instead of the six to nine months associated with traditional procedures.

PMID: 17618333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleTreatment effects of occipitomental anchorage appliance of maxillary protract...
Related Articles

Treatment effects of occipitomental anchorage appliance of maxillary protraction combined with chincup traction in children with Class III malocclusion.

J Formos Med Assoc. 2007 May;106(5):380-91

Authors: Lin HC, Chang HP, Chang HF

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. METHODS: Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of untreated Class III control subjects. RESULTS: The OMA appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing children. The treatment effects of this orthopedic appliance were considered to be from both skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. The skeletal effects were mainly obtained by stimulating forward growth of the Mx complex with negligible rotation of the Mx plane and restraining forward advancement of the mandible (Mn) with backward and downward rotation of the Mn plane. The observed dentoalveolar effects were mostly due to the labial tipping movement of the Mx incisors. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the OMA orthopedic appliance can correct the mesial jaw relationship and negative incisal over jet. This appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with both midface deficiency and Mn prognathism in growing children.

PMID: 17561473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticlePressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion.
Related Articles

Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2007 May;8(5):296-301

Authors: Ruan WH, Su JM, Ye XW

OBJECTIVE: To discuss possible relationships between class III malocclusion and perioral forces by measuring the pressure from the lips and the tongue of children with class III malocclusion. METHODS: Thirty-one children with class III malocclusion were investigated and their perioral forces were measured at rest and during swallowing under natural head position by a custom-made miniperioral force computer measuring system. RESULTS: The resting pressures exerted on the labial side and palatine side of the upper left incisor, as well as the labial side and lingual side of the lower left incisor, were 0 g/cm(2), 0 g/cm(2), 0.57 g/cm(2) and 0.23 g/cm(2), respectively. Correspondingly, the swallowing forces were 2.87 g/cm(2), 5.97 g/cm(2), 4.09 g/cm(2) and 7.89 g/cm(2), respectively. No statistical difference between muscular pressure and gender existed. During swallowing, the lingual forces were significantly higher than the labial forces (P<0.01), however, at rest there was no significantly different force between these two sides. Compared to the normal occlusion patients, children with class III malocclusion had lower perioral forces. The upper labial resting forces (P<0.01), the lower labial resting forces (P<0.05) and all the swallowing pressures from the lips and the tongue (P<0.01) showed statistical differences between the two different occlusion conditions. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found for the resting pressure from the tongue between class III malocclusion and normal occlusion. CONCLUSION: Patients with class III malocclusion have lower perioral forces and this muscle hypofunction may be secondary to the spatial relations of the jaws. The findings support the spatial matrix hypothesis.

PMID: 17542055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic tre...
Related Articles

The spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic treatment, and characteristics of orthognathic surgery.

Head Face Med. 2007;3:10

Authors: Hohoff A, Joos U, Meyer U, Ehmer U, Stamm T

In the PubMed accessible literature, information on the characteristics of interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment of patients with Apert syndrome is rare. The aim of the present article is threefold: (1) to show the spectrum of the phenotype, in order (2) to elucidate the scope of hindrances to orthodontic treatment, and (3) to demonstrate the problems of surgery and interdisciplinary approach.Children and adolescents who were born in 1985 or later, who were diagnosed with Apert syndrome, and who sought consultation or treatment at the Departments of Orthodontics or Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the Dental School of the University Hospital of M&#xFC;nster (n = 22; 9 male, 13 female) were screened. Exemplarily, three of these patients (2 male, 1 female), seeking interdisciplinary (both orthodontic and surgical treatment) are presented. Orthodontic treatment before surgery was performed by one experienced orthodontist (AH), and orthognathic surgery was performed by one experienced surgeon (UJ), who diagnosed the syndrome according to the criteria listed in OMIM. In the sagittal plane, the patients suffered from a mild to a very severe Angle Class III malocclusion, which was sometimes compensated by the inclination of the lower incisors; in the vertical dimension from an open bite; and transversally from a single tooth in crossbite to a circular crossbite. All patients showed dentitio tarda, some impaction, partial eruption, idopathic root resorption, transposition or other aberrations in the position of the tooth germs, and severe crowding, with sometimes parallel molar tooth buds in each quarter of the upper jaw.Because of the severity of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment needed to be performed with fixed appliances, and mainly with superelastic wires. The therapy was hampered with respect to positioning of bands and brackets because of incomplete tooth eruption, dense gingiva, and mucopolysaccharide ridges. Some teeth did not move, or moved insufficiently (especially with respect to rotations and torque) irrespective of surgical procedures or orthodontic mechanics and materials applied, and without prognostic factors indicating these problems. Establishing occlusal contact of all teeth was difficult. Tooth movement was generally retarded, increasing the duration of orthodontic treatment. Planning of extractions was different from that of patients without this syndrome.In one patient, the sole surgical procedure after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in the maxilla and mandible was a genioplasty. Most patients needed two- jaw surgery (bilateral sagittal split osteotomy [BSSO] with mandibular setback and distraction in the maxilla). During the period of distraction, the orthodontist guided the maxilla into final position by means of bite planes and intermaxillary elastics.To our knowledge, this is the first article in the PubMed accessible literature describing the problems with respect to interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical procedures. Although the treatment results are not perfect, patients undergoing these procedures benefit esthetically to a high degree.Patients need to be informed with respect to the different kinds of extractions that need to be performed, the increased treatment time, and the results, which may be reached using realistic expectations.

PMID: 17286873 [PubMed]


Free Full Text ArticleKabuki syndrome: a case report.
Related Articles

Kabuki syndrome: a case report.

J Orthod. 2006 Dec;33(4):242-5

Authors: Lung ZH, Rennie A

This article reports the case of an 8-year-old female with Kabuki syndrome and the oral/dental implications of this syndrome, namely hypodontia with interdental spacing, abnormal tooth morphology, malocclusion and a defect in the anterior midline of the palate. The oral findings will aid the clinician in diagnosing this syndrome, which was once thought to be seen exclusively in the Japanese population.

PMID: 17142329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe effect of tongue appliance on the nasomaxillary complex in growing cleft ...
Related Articles

The effect of tongue appliance on the nasomaxillary complex in growing cleft lip and palate patients.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006 Sep;24(3):136-9

Authors: Jamilian A, Showkatbakhsh R, Boushehry MB

Midfacial deficiency is a common feature of cleft lip and palate patients due to scar tissue of the lip and palate closure procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the physiological force of the tongue to move the maxilla in forward position. This research has been done experimentally by, before and after treatment following up in private practice. Ten patients (6 female, 4 male) with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate were selected. All of them had Cl III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency due to scar tissue of lip and palate surgery. Their age ranged from 7.6 to 9.8 years. All the patients were delivered tongue appliance to transfer the force of the tongue to maxillary complex. The mean observation time was 13+/-2 months to achieve positive overjet. Pre- and post-lateral cephalograms were compared to evaluate the skeletal changes with paired t-test. The results showed that after the application of tongue appliance, normal sagittal maxillomandibular relationship was achieved. SN-ANS angle was increased 1.9+/-1.8 - P < 0.03. This study showed that the tongue appliance could transfer considerable force during rest and swallowing period to the maxilla. This method might be considered to improve the deficient maxilla by means of growth modification and redirect concept.

PMID: 17065780 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleMorphometric analysis of the mandible in subjects with Class III malocclusion.
Related Articles

Morphometric analysis of the mandible in subjects with Class III malocclusion.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2006 Jul;22(7):331-8

Authors: Pan JY, Chou ST, Chang HP, Liu PH

This study evaluated the deformations that contribute to Class III mandibular configuration, employing geometric morphometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms of male and female groups of 100 young adults and 70 children with Class III malocclusion were compared to those of counterparts with normal occlusion. The sample included an equal number of both genders. The cephalographs were traced, and 12 homologous landmarks were identified and digitized. Average mandibular geometries were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then applied to mandibular configurations to determine local form differences in male and female groups of adults and children with normal occlusion and Class III mal-occlusion. The mandibular morphology was significantly different between these two groups of male and female adults, and children (p < 0.0001). This spline analysis revealed an anteroposterior elongation of the mandible along the condylion-gnathion axis, showing an extension in the regions of the mandibular condyle and ramus, and of the anteroinferior portion of the mandibular symphysis in Class III groups. More extension was evident in Class III adults. The deformations in subjects with Class III malocclusion may represent a developmental elongation of the mandible anteroposteriorly, which leads to the appearance of a prognathic mandibular profile.

PMID: 16849101 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleOrthodontic and orthopaedic changes associated with treatment in subjects wit...
Related Articles

Orthodontic and orthopaedic changes associated with treatment in subjects with Class III malocclusions.

Eur J Orthod. 2006 Oct;28(5):496-502

Authors: Kama JD, Ozer T, Baran S

The aim of this study was to determine the cephalometric changes in subjects with Class III malocclusions after rapid palatal expansion (RPE) and facemask treatment. The 30 subjects presented with developing Class III malocclusions. The treatment group comprised 15 patients (eight girls and seven boys, mean age 11 years 6 months) who had undergone RPE and facemask therapy. The control group consisted of nine girls and six boys with a mean age of 11 years 8 months. Radiographs were take at the same time intervals for both groups, and the average treatment time was 15 months. A Wilcoxon test was used to determine significant differences before and after treatment, and a Mann-Whitney U-test to analyse differences between the treatment and control groups. In the sagittal plane, significant changes were observed in both groups. In the treatment group, the following dimensions increased significantly: A perpendicular to FHp (P < 0.001), ANS-PNS (P < 0.01), 6 perpendicular to FHp (P < 0.05); in the control group Go-Gn (P < 0.05) increased significantly. In the treatment group, SN/Go-Gn and SN/ANS-PNS had higher values and this finding was significant (P < 0.05). Managing developing Class III malocclusions with RPE and maxillary protraction presents favourable results, such as vertical and sagittal displacement of point A.

PMID: 16772318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleCorrection of anterior open bite in a case of achondroplasia.
Related Articles

Correction of anterior open bite in a case of achondroplasia.

Indian J Dent Res. 2005 Oct-Dec;16(4):159-66

Authors: Karpagam S, Rabin K, George M, Santhosh K

Treatment planning for patients with skeletal deformities is often considered challenging. This article reports a female patient with achondroplasia who presented with severe maxillary retrognathism and vertical excess along with anterior open bite. The clinical and cephalometric findings of the patient are detailed here. The treatment plan consisted of modified anterior maxillary osteotomy for simultaneous vertical and sagittal augmentation along with orthodontic intervention. The course of surgical-orthodontic treatment and the results are presented. This treatment is to be followed by correction of vertical maxillary excess after completion of growth. This paper concludes that the dentoalveolar component of a skeletal deformity can be handled independent of the craniofacial management.

PMID: 16761710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleEvaluation of maxillary protraction and fixed appliance therapy in Class III ...
Related Articles

Evaluation of maxillary protraction and fixed appliance therapy in Class III patients.

Eur J Orthod. 2006 Aug;28(4):383-92

Authors: Arman A, Ufuk Toygar T, Abuhijleh E

The aim of this study was to examine the dentofacial changes in Class III patients treated with fixed appliances subsequent to rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and facemask therapy. The material consisted of the cephalograms and hand-wrist films of 14 (9 girls, 5 boys) skeletal Class III and 15 (10 girls, 5 boys) untreated subjects obtained at the beginning of treatment/observation T1, immediately after orthopaedic therapy T2, and at the end of the observation period T3. The mean pre-treatment/control ages were approximately 11.5 years and the observation period was 3 years T2-T1: 1 year, T3-T2: 2 years). The cephalometric films were analysed according to the structural superimposition method of Bj&#xF6;rk. All tracings were double-digitized and the measurements were calculated by a computer program. Intragroup changes and intergroup differences were statistically analysed. Forward movement of the maxilla (P < 0.01), backward movement and rotation of the mandible, an increase in the ANB angle (P < 0.001), lower face height and overjet (P < 0.001), a decrease of overbite, and an improvement in the sagittal lip relationship (P < 0.01) presented significant intergroup differences between T2 and T1. During the second phase of treatment T3-T2, although not statistically significant, forward movement of the maxilla was less than in the control subjects. Overall changes during the observation period T3-T1 revealed that correction was mainly due to favourable changes in the mandibular and dentoalveolar components of the discrepancy, while these in maxillary position were not different from the control group. The soft tissue profile improved significantly (P < 0.001) in the treatment group. Comparison with the Class I controls at the end of the observation period confirmed that some Class III characteristics still remained in the treated patients.

PMID: 16731542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleEvaluation of the centroid method of occlusion for studying mandibular and ma...
Related Articles

Evaluation of the centroid method of occlusion for studying mandibular and maxillary growth.

Eur J Orthod. 2006 Aug;28(4):345-51

Authors: Murata S, Nakamura S, Nagahara K

The aim of this study was to evaluate the centroid method of occlusion for studying mandibular growth and development. This novel technique comparatively expresses the direction of growth of the maxilla and mandible as a single unit. The centroid 'G' was geometrically calculated from the triangle Deltaabc, which comprised the palatal, articulare-gnathion (Ar-Gn), and A-B planes. The plane angles and positional relationship of the centroid with the upper first molar was investigated, focusing on differences between genders and malocclusions. Lateral cephalograms were obtained of 26 males and 51 females with a 'normal' Class I occlusion, 216 females with a Class III incisor relationship, and 230 females, all aged >18 years, with a Class II incisor relationship. Bolton standards and Sakamoto's data were used to determine changes in the angle of the palatal plane to the Ar-Gn plane. Non-significant levels of variation were observed in the angle of the palatal plane to the Ar-Gn plane during the developmental period from childhood to adulthood. Among Class I adult subjects, Deltaabc was similar between genders and the centroid G was located near the occlusal surface of the upper first molar. There was no difference in the area of Deltaabc between malocclusion types. The positional relationship of the centroid G with the upper first molar revealed a shift of the centroid mesially and cervically during the transition from Class III to Class I to Class II. These findings indicate that the centroid method can contribute to orthopaedic diagnosis and the planning of treatment strategies.

PMID: 16644852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleMorphometric analysis of mandibular growth in skeletal Class III malocclusion.
Related Articles

Morphometric analysis of mandibular growth in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Apr;105(4):318-28

Authors: Chang JZ, Chen YJ, Chang FH, Yao JC, Liu PH, Chang CH, Lan WH

BACKGROUND: The craniofacial growth patterns of untreated individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion have rarely been systemically investigated. This study used morphometric techniques to investigate the growth characteristics of the mandible in individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric head films of 294 individuals with untreated skeletal Class III malocclusion (134 males, 160 females) were selected and divided into five triennial age groups (T1-T5) and by gender to identify the morphologic characteristics and sexual dimorphism in changes of mandibular growth. Procrustes, thin-plate spline, and finite element analyses were performed for localization of differences in shape and size changes. Maximum and minimum principal axes were drawn to express the directions of shape changes. RESULTS: From T1 (age 6-8 years) to T4 (age 15-17 years), the distribution of localized size and shape changes of the mandible was very similar between the two genders. From T1 to T2 (age 9-11 years), significant lengthening of the condylar region was noted (23.4-39.7%). From T2 to T3 (age 12-14 years), the greatest size and shape change occurred at the condylar head (27.4-34.9%). From T3 to T4, the greatest size and shape changes occurred in the symphyseal region (23.6-42.1%). From T4 to T5 (age>or=18 years), significant sexual dimorphism was found in the distribution and amount of localized size and shape changes. Females displayed little growth increments during T4. Despite differences in the remodeling process, the whole mandibular configurations of both genders exhibited similarly significant upward and forward deformation from T4 to T5. CONCLUSION: We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis and the finite element morphometric method are efficient for the localization and quantification of size and shape changes that occur during mandibular growth. Plots of maximum and minimum principal directions can provide useful information about the trends of growth changes.

PMID: 16618612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleBOS MOrth Cases Prize 2004.
Related Articles

BOS MOrth Cases Prize 2004.

J Orthod. 2006 Mar;33(1):7-21

Authors: U&#xFF;s JO

This paper describes the clinical orthodontic treatment of 2 cases that were successfully entered for the 2004 American Orthodontics MOrth Cases Prize. The first case is that of a patient presenting with a Class III malocclusion treated with rapid maxillary expansion and protraction headgear followed by fixed appliance therapy. The second case demonstrates the use of fixed appliances to correct a moderate Class II division I malocclusion.

PMID: 16514129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleAn application of a splint purposeful resin-bonded fixed partial denture afte...
Related Articles

An application of a splint purposeful resin-bonded fixed partial denture after orthodontic treatment: a case report.

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2006 Feb 15;7(1):141-9

Authors: Baydaş B, Denizoglu S

An adult male patient who had lost his maxillary left central incisor seven years ago in a traffic accident presented with a chief complaint about his unaesthetic appearance associated with the loss of his maxillary left central incisor space, a Class III molar occlusion, and an anterior open bite malocclusion due to tongue-thrust swallowing. Fixed orthodontic treatment was rendered following fan-type expansion of the maxilla. A Maryland bridge as a minimally invasive dentistry approach was used as a retention appliance and the patient's aesthetic appearance was restored.

PMID: 16491157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThin-plate spline analysis of the effects of face mask treatment in children ...
Related Articles

Thin-plate spline analysis of the effects of face mask treatment in children with maxillary retrognathism.

J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Feb;105(2):147-54

Authors: Chang JZ, Liu PH, Chen YJ, Yao JC, Chang HP, Chang CH, Chang FH

BACKGROUND: Face mask therapy is indicated for growing patients who suffer from maxillary retrognathia. Most previous studies used conventional cephalometric analysis to evaluate the effects of face mask treatment. Cephalometric analysis has been shown to be insufficient for complex craniofacial configurations. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the craniofacial structure of children with maxillary retrognathism following face mask treatment by means of thin-plate spline analysis. METHODS: Thirty children with skeletal Class III malocclusions who had been treated with face masks were compared with a group of 30 untreated gender-matched, age-matched, observation period-matched, and craniofacial configuration-matched subjects. Average geometries, scaled to an equivalent size, were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then performed for localization of the shape changes. RESULTS: Face mask treatment induced a forward displacement of the maxilla, a counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane, a horizontal compression of the anterior border of the symphysis and the condylar region, and a downward deformation of the menton. The cranial base exhibited a counterclockwise deformation as a whole. CONCLUSION: We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis is a valuable supplement to conventional cephalometric analysis.

PMID: 16477335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleSagittal airway dimensions following maxillary protraction: a pilot study.
Related Articles

Sagittal airway dimensions following maxillary protraction: a pilot study.

Eur J Orthod. 2006 Apr;28(2):184-9

Authors: Sayinsu K, Isik F, Arun T

The relationship between changes in the position of the maxillary structures caused by maxillary protraction therapy and airway dimensions have not been investigated as comprehensively as the accompanying skeletal changes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rapid palatal expansion (RPE) used in conjunction with maxillary protraction headgear on the sagittal dimension of the airway. The treatment sample consisted of 19 Class III patients (12 girls, 7 boys) with a mean age of 10.51 +/- 1.15 years, presenting with maxillary retrognathism. A cap splint type rapid palatal expander that had hooks between the upper lateral and canine teeth was used intraorally, and a Petit type facemask device extraorally, for an average of 6.78 +/- 0.93 months. Pre- and post-treatment cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. The results of the study revealed that point A moved anteriorly. The palatal plane showed a counter-clockwise rotation matched by the clockwise rotation of the mandible and an accompanying decrease in SNB angle. The vertical parameters showed a statistically significant increase. The head was in a more extensive position in relation to the cervical vertebrae. The nasopharyngeal airway measurements (PNS-ad1, PNS-ad2) showed an increase of 2.71 +/- 3.35 and 3.03 +/- 2.37 mm, respectively. These results demonstrated that limited maxillary widening together with protraction of the maxilla, improve nasopharyngeal but not oropharyngeal airway dimensions in the short term.

PMID: 16464873 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleA computerized photographic assessment of the relationship between skeletal d...
Related Articles

A computerized photographic assessment of the relationship between skeletal discrepancy and mandibular outline asymmetry.

Eur J Orthod. 2006 Apr;28(2):97-102

Authors: Good S, Edler R, Wertheim D, Greenhill D

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mandibular outline asymmetry and skeletal discrepancy in a sample of orthodontic patients (33 females, 33 males) aged from 8 to 19 years. Skeletal discrepancy was assessed in both the anteroposterior and vertical planes, using standard cephalometric analyses. All were photographed under standardized conditions and the photographs were then digitized for analysis using a computerized system to assess differences in four variables (area, perimeter, compactness and moment-ratio) between the right and left sides of the mandibular outline. The results showed good repeatability of the photographic, cephalometric and digitization methods. A statistically significant relationship was found between mandibular outline asymmetry and both anteroposterior and vertical skeletal discrepancy in this sample, when compared with patients with an average skeletal pattern. There appeared to be a statistically significant relationship between a reduced ANB angle (< 3 degrees) and mandibular outline asymmetry (P = 0.051), as well as between an increase in lower face height and mandibular asymmetry (P = 0.023).

PMID: 16431897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleQuantitative assessment of nasal changes after maxillomandibular surgery usin...
Related Articles

Quantitative assessment of nasal changes after maxillomandibular surgery using a 3-dimensional digital imaging system.

Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;8(1):26-35

Authors: Honrado CP, Lee S, Bloomquist DS, Larrabee WF

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nasal changes after maxillomandibular surgery by means of images taken with a 3-dimensional digital camera. DESIGN: Thirty-two patients (26 female and 6 male) with preoperative and postoperative 3-dimensional photographs were studied. The patients underwent maxillary movement with impaction (upward rotation), maxillary movement with lengthening (downward rotation), or maxillary movement without rotation. With the 3-dimensional imaging software, preoperative and postoperative calculations were performed for interalar width, internostril width, nasal tip projection, and columellar length from the 3-dimensional digital images. The nasolabial angle was also measured. RESULTS: Postoperative interalar and internostril widening was significant (P<.05) for all 3 categories of maxillary movement. However, there was no statistically significant change in nasal tip projection and columellar length. Interestingly, movement of the maxilla with upward rotation did show a statistically significant decrease in the nasolabial angle. CONCLUSIONS: Changes to the nose clearly occur after orthognathic surgery. There was a statistically significant increase in postoperative interalar width and internostril width with maxillary movement. However, no clear correlation could be determined between amount of change and maxillary movement. Interestingly, maxillary advancement did not show any significant change in nasal tip projection or columellar length, with data showing both increases and decreases in measurements. The nasolabial angle in patients who underwent maxillary advancement with impaction (upward rotation) was the only measurement that showed a statistically significant increase.

PMID: 16415444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticlePrediction of post-treatment outcome after combined treatment with maxillary ...
Related Articles

Prediction of post-treatment outcome after combined treatment with maxillary protraction and chincap appliances.

Eur J Orthod. 2006 Feb;28(1):89-96

Authors: Yoshida I, Yamaguchi N, Mizoguchi I

The aims of this study were to identify differences in the initial skeletal morphology between successful and unsuccessful groups and to establish a novel method for predicting the final outcome of treatment with a maxillary protraction appliance (MPA) and chincap. The cephalograms used in this study were taken from 32 Japanese girls (mean age 10.2 years) with a Class III malocclusion at the beginning of treatment with an MPA and chincap (T1), at removal of the appliance (T2), and during the final post-treatment period (T3). The subjects were divided into two groups according to the treatment outcome at T3. Lower face height (ANS-Me), total face height (N-Me), ratio of face height (ANS-Me/N-ANS), maxillary position, mandibular plane and gonial angle at T1 were all significantly larger in the unsuccessful group, compared with the successful group. Discriminant analysis indicated that lower face height and gonial angle were significant determinants for distinguishing between the two groups at T1. From T1 to T2, while the anterior displacement of the maxilla was almost the same in the two groups, SNB decreased by 1.6 degrees in the successful group and 0.4 degrees in the unsuccessful group. After orthopaedic treatment, a second phase of treatment with a multibracket system was performed (T2 to T3). From T2 to T3, SNA increased by 0.4 degrees in the successful group and decreased by 0.7 degrees in the unsuccessful group. These results indicate that the vertical dimensions of the craniofacial skeleton are important for predicting the prognosis of skeletal Class III patients treated with a MPA and chincap and that the discriminant formula established in this study is effective in predicting the final treatment outcome.

PMID: 16113036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleComparative cephalometric study of Class III malocclusion in Saudi and Japane...
Related Articles

Comparative cephalometric study of Class III malocclusion in Saudi and Japanese adult females.

J Oral Sci. 2005 Jun;47(2):83-90

Authors: Bukhary MT

The cephalometric features of class III malocclusion in Saudi adult females were investigated and compared with reference data for Japanese females. The sample consisted of 30 standardized pre-treatment cephalometric radiographs of adult Saudi females diagnosed as having skeletal class III malocclusion. The radiographs were traced and digitized. Linear and angular variables were obtained for comparison of cranial base, maxilla, mandible, intermaxillary and dentoalveolar measurements. The method error in identifying and locating the anatomical landmarks was small and acceptable. Student's t-test was used for comparing the measurements. The results showed that Saudi females had a larger anterior cranial base, a smaller posterior cranial base, a smaller cranial base angle, smaller anterior and posterior facial heights, downward tipping of the maxilla, a retruded chin, a less steep mandibular plane, an increased joint angle, a smaller ramus, body and total mandibular length, and less retroclined mandibular incisors. The null hypothesis of no difference between the two groups was rejected. These results appear to suggest real differences in skeletal features between Saudi and Japanese adult females.

PMID: 16050488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe relationship between temporomandibular joint disc morphology and stress a...
Related Articles

The relationship between temporomandibular joint disc morphology and stress angulation in skeletal Class III patients.

Eur J Orthod. 2005 Oct;27(5):501-6

Authors: Ueki K, Nakagawa K, Marukawa K, Takatsuka S, Yamamoto E

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between disc position and stress direction on the condyle by means of stress analysis using the rigid body spring model (RBSM) theory. The material consisted of 88 joints of 44 Class III dentofacial deformity patients, divided into symmetry and asymmetry groups on the basis of the Mx-Md midline position. The asymmetry group was identified by comparison with a reference midline vertical plane passing through a plane from ANS to Me. Asymmetry was diagnosed when the angle between these two planes was greater than 3 degrees. The geometry of the stress analysis model was based on sagittal tomography of the subject. The first molar, gonial angle, and the most anterior, superior, and posterior points on the condyle were plotted on a computer display, and stress angulation on the condyles was calculated with the RBSM program. In addition to anterior displacement with or without reduction, three types of disc position could be identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): anterior, fully covered and posterior. In the asymmetric group, stress angulation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at the deviation side compared with the non-deviation side. There was also a significant correlation between disc position and stress angulation (P < 0.05). In the asymmetry group, regression analysis indicated a significant correlation (P < 0.001) between the difference in stress angulation (between the deviation side and the non-deviation side) and the degree of asymmetry (measured by the angle of asymmetry). This study demonstrated that temporomandibular joint (TMJ) stress was associated with TMJ morphology in Class III patients whether or not they were asymmetric.

PMID: 16024561 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThird molar angulation during and after treatment of adolescent orthodontic p...
Related Articles

Third molar angulation during and after treatment of adolescent orthodontic patients.

Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):590-6

Authors: Artun J, Thalib L, Little RM

The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of premolar extraction therapy on third molar angulation during active treatment, and to test the significance of such changes on subsequent impaction of the third molars. Lateral cephalograms made before (T1) and after (T2) treatment and at long-term follow-up (T3) of 157 patients treated non-extraction (non-ex) or with extraction of four premolars (ex), all accurately diagnosed for impaction versus eruption of at least one third molar at T3, were evaluated. Linear regression models demonstrated that the maxillary third molars uprighted more from T1 to T2 (P < 0.05) and were less distally angulated at T2 (P < 0.01) in the ex than in the non-ex patients. No such differences were detected in the mandible (P > 0.05). The regression models also showed similar uprighting of the maxillary and mandibular third molars from T1 to T2 and similar angulation of the maxillary third molars at T2 in those patients with subsequent eruption and impaction (P > 0.05), but more mesially angulated mandibular third molars at T2 in the impaction patients (P < 0.01). Chi square testing demonstrated a higher frequency of distal tipping of the maxillary third molars from T1 to T2 in the impaction patients (P < 0.01), while mesial tipping from T1 to T2 of the mandibular third molars occurred with similar frequency in the two patient groups (P > 0.05). Chi square analysis also showed a higher frequency of greater than 30 degree distal angulation as well as an amount mesial angulation of the maxillary third molars at T2 (P < 0.01), and a higher frequency of greater than 40 degree mesial angulation of the mandibular third molars at T2 (P < 0.01) in patients with impaction than in those with eruption.

PMID: 16009666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleA measuring system for facial aesthetics in Caucasian adolescents: reproducib...
Related Articles

A measuring system for facial aesthetics in Caucasian adolescents: reproducibility and validity.

Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):579-84

Authors: Kiekens RM, Maltha JC, van 't Hof MA, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM

A new measuring system to judge facial aesthetics in young Caucasians is presented. The system uses sets of three photographs (one frontal, one three-quarter smiling, and one lateral) as a stimulus. Scores are performed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) with separate sets of reference photographs for girls and boys. The choice of the reference photographs was based on a panel evaluation of facial aesthetics of 40 boys and 40 girls from the archive of the orthodontic department. Reproducibility of the new measuring system was tested on a series of photographic sets (one frontal, one three-quarter smiling, and one lateral view) of 64 patients, using a panel of 78 adult laymen and 89 professionals. The panel members assessed these sets of photographs on a VAS, in relation to the reference sets. The system was shown to be reproducible. Although the intra-observer reproducibility was low, the reliability coefficient was excellent (Cronbach's alpha > or = 0.98). Validity was tested by comparing the scores on the new scales with those of the three-quarter smiling photographic views on an earlier published scale. The correlation between the ratings on the new measuring system and the earlier published scale was 0.82 for laymen and 0.77 for professionals. The new system is simple and flexible in its use, and reproducible and valid for assessing facial aesthetics in young Caucasians. The system can be used in further investigations on the evaluation of facial aesthetics.

PMID: 16009665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleNon-surgical treatment of Class III malocclusion in adults: two case reports.
Related Articles

Non-surgical treatment of Class III malocclusion in adults: two case reports.

J Orthod. 2005 Jun;32(2):89-97

Authors: Gelg&#xF6;r IE, Karaman AI

Class III malocclusions are usually growth-related discrepancies, which often become more severe until growth is complete. The surgery can be part of the treatment plan. The purpose of this report is to review the orthodontic treatment of two patients with a Class III malocclusion who were treated non-surgically. The basis for this treatment approach is presented and the final treatment result reviewed. Important factors to consider when establishing a Class III molar relationship are discussed.

PMID: 15994982 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleCranial-base morphology in children with class III malocclusion.
Related Articles

Cranial-base morphology in children with class III malocclusion.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2005 Apr;21(4):159-65

Authors: Chang HP, Hsieh SH, Tseng YC, Chou TM

The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear measurements was performed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The results revealed that the greatest between-group differences occurred in the posterior cranial-base region. It was concluded that shortening and angular bending of the cranial base, and a diminished angle between the cranial base and mandibular ramus, may lead to Class III malocclusion associated with Class III facial morphology. The association between cranial-base morphology and other types of malocclusion needs clarification. Further study of regional changes in the cranial base, with geometric morphometric analysis, is warranted.

PMID: 15909671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe influence of mandibular prominence on facial attractiveness.
Related Articles

The influence of mandibular prominence on facial attractiveness.

Eur J Orthod. 2005 Apr;27(2):129-33

Authors: Johnston C, Hunt O, Burden D, Stevenson M, Hepper P

This study examined the attractiveness of facial profiles. One hundred and two social science students (28 males and 74 females) rated the attractiveness of a series of silhouettes with normal, Class II or Class III profiles. A random sequence of 10 images included an image with the Eastman normal SNB value of 78 degrees, and images with SNB values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 degrees above and below normal. A duplicate image in each sequence was used to assess reproducibility. The participants scored the attractiveness of each image and also indicated whether they would seek treatment if each image was their own profile.The profile with the normal SNB angle of 78 degrees was rated as the most attractive. Attractiveness scores reduced as the mandibular profile diverged from the normal SNB value. The +5 degree profile (SNB = 83 degrees) was rated as significantly more attractive than the -5 degree profile (SNB = 73 degrees; P = 0.004). No other significant differences between the scores for Class II and Class III profile pairs of equal severity were found. At 10 degrees below the normal SNB (Class II), 74 per cent of the sample would elect to have treatment, while 78 per cent would elect to have treatment at 10 degrees above the normal SNB (Class III).

PMID: 15817618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleMorphology of Singapore chinese.
Related Articles

Morphology of Singapore chinese.

Eur J Orthod. 2004 Dec;26(6):605-12

Authors: Yeong P, Huggare J

The aims of this study were to provide a description of the craniofacial morphology of Singaporean Chinese children and to compare gender differences.Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained of 81 Singaporean Chinese children (31 boys and 50 girls; mean age 12.7 and 12.5 years, respectively, standard deviation = 0.7) with Class I incisor relationships. The radiographs were traced and 27 hard and soft tissue cephalometric landmarks digitized. Fourteen linear and 13 angular cephalometric variables were obtained using the Neodigiplottrade mark computerized cephalometric analysis software. A comparison of the genders showed that girls had greater maxillary and mandibular protrusion, but the upper and lower incisor inclinations were reduced. In addition, girls showed reduced facial convexity and reduced upper lip prominence. Pogonion to nasion perpendicular was greater for boys. Although not statistically significant, the values of intermaxillary protrusion and Wits showed a tendency for the girls towards a Class III skeletal base. The boys also had statistically significantly longer cranial base lengths, and anterior and posterior face heights. Overall, the results reflect gender differences in both angular and linear cephalometric craniofacial measurements, which should be taken into account when establishing cephalometric reference data for Singaporean Chinese children.

PMID: 15650070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleA case of Antley-Bixler syndrome with severe skeletal Cl. III malocclusion.
Related Articles

A case of Antley-Bixler syndrome with severe skeletal Cl. III malocclusion.

Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2004 May;45(2):87-93

Authors: Tsuchiya Y, Sueishi K, Yatabe K, Yamaguchi H

Antley-Bixler syndrome is a disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, choana blockade, and radiohumeral synostosis. However, the features of occlusion remain unclear. In this paper, we report a case of Antley-Bixler syndrome, a 7-year-old boy, from the viewpoint of orthodontics. From lateral cephalometric head film analysis, remarkable retardation of the anterior subcranial base, infraorbitale, and maxilla were notable, as was vertical growth restriction of the maxilla. The choana blockade tendency was also recognized. Moreover, although reverse occlusion was present, a mandibular retrognathic tendency was also present, and a short ramus mandible, remarkable mandibular vertical growth pattern, and skeletal open bite were present. In the dentition, two of the lower incisors were missing, and the present lower incisors were large. Maxillary and mandibular first molars were delayed in eruption. For treatment, the solutions to such remarkable skeletal problems were limited by the insufficiency of recovery of cranial formation after the operation. We planned a non-surgical treatment to expand the maxilla. It will be necessary to continually consider the treatment of his malocclusion as he continues to grow.

PMID: 15536859 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Study on the characteristics and reasons for mistakes in some orthodontic ca...
Related Articles

[Study on the characteristics and reasons for mistakes in some orthodontic cases]

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2004 Aug;13(4):331-2

Authors: Qin K, Chang X, Zhao ZJ

PURPOSE: To evaluate the characteristics and reasons for mistakes in some orthodontic cases. METHODS: 37 cases after or during treatment in other hospitals with mis-treatment were chosen, their original records as well as the records when they came to our hospital were collected, their original and present malocclusions were classified and the characteristics and reason of mistakes were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 37 cases, 26 cases had class-III malocclusion which account for 70.27% of the group, especially for the malocclusions began in mixed dentition and the problems developed from anterior dental crossbite to severe skeletal crossbite with dentofacial asymmetry and openbite. The main reasons lie in the mistakes of diagnosis and treatment planning, preventive treatment,appliance fabrication,use of extraoral arch and elastics, treatment processes, et al. CONCLUSIONS: There are various characteristics and reasons of treatment mistakes, but the problems lie mainly in class-III malocclusion especially during mixed dentition which indicates that we should pay more attention to the treatment of class-III malocclusion.

PMID: 15349681 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Prognosis of three-dimension change at middle facial soft tissue with distra...
Related Articles

[Prognosis of three-dimension change at middle facial soft tissue with distraction osteogenesis]

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2004 Aug;13(4):271-4

Authors: Wu J, Cai Z, Wang YC

PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in middle facial soft tissue caused by distraction osteogenesis. METHODS: A three-dimensional finite element model was established based on the simulation of a 13-year-old female with skeletal class III malocclusion.Three approaches of osteotomy, namely Le Fort I, Le Fort II and Le Fort III, were simulated and the maxillary complex was advanced by 5mm in the direction of FH plane, functional occlusal plane and functional occlusal plane with deviation of counter-clockwise 10 degrees, respectively, some premeters indicating the contour of the facial soft tissue were evaluated. RESULTS: The three kinds of osteotomy in which different levels of osteotomied maxillary complex area were advanced. Changing in detail is that the nose tip moved forward 1.25 mm, upper lip moved forward 4.9 mm, and the angle of Cm-Sn-U1 tended to increase after Le Fort I osteotomy; and nose tip moved forward 4.9 mm after Le Fort II osteotomy without increase of the angle of Cm-Sn-U1; besides changes that happened after Le Fort II osteotomy, lower eyelid moved forward 2mm after Le Fort III osteotomy. CONCLUSION: By computer surgery simulation using three-dimensional finite element model, we can obtain not only the amount of the three-dimensional change of the facial soft tissue, but also the three-dimensional effected graphics after operations.

PMID: 15349663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Comparative study of craniofacial structure between UCLP and Class III maloc...
Related Articles

[Comparative study of craniofacial structure between UCLP and Class III malocclusions]

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2004 Aug;13(4):268-70

Authors: Wu J, Shen G

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the dentocraniofacial morphology between the patients with cleft lip and palate and those with Class III malocclusion without surgical treatment. METHODS: The sample included two groups, group one consisted of 39 patients with repaired completed or uncompleted unilateral cleft lip and palate, with age ranging from 12 to 15 years; group two consisted of 40 patients with Class III malocclusion without surgical treatment, with age ranging from 12 to 15 years. Cephalometrics analysis was conducted to allow for a quantitative assessment of dentocraniofacial morphology. RESULTS: The group with unilateral cleft lip and palate showed smaller SNA and SNB angle than those in the Class III group,but the ANB angle showed no significant difference between two groups. Cleft group showed significant downward and backward rotation of the mandible associated with a more obtuse gonial angle. The upper incisors in cleft group were also found to be more retroclined. The inclination of lower anterior teeth showed no difference between two groups. CONCLUSION: The cleft group showed smaller maxilla and mandible than the Class III group, with mandibular plane being clockwise rotated.

PMID: 15349662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleHow predictable is orthognathic surgery?
Related Articles

How predictable is orthognathic surgery?

Eur J Orthod. 2004 Jun;26(3):303-9

Authors: Eckhardt CE, Cunningham SJ

There are a number of increasingly sophisticated techniques available for orthognathic treatment planning. All are based on the determination of the skeletal pattern and the position of the dentition. However, they all suffer from difficulties associated with predicting the soft tissue profile. The aim of this retrospective cephalometric investigation was, therefore, to compare the ability to predict accurately the outcome of orthognathic treatment using the 'hand planning' technique and the orthognathic planning and analysis (OPAL) computer program, with an emphasis on the soft tissue profile. Seventy adult subjects were divided into two groups not specific for gender or age: the Class III patients had undergone bimaxillary surgery and the Class II patients sagittal split mandibular advancement. In each group, the pre-treatment and post-debond lateral cephalograms were utilized to calculate the actual orthodontic and surgical movements. These values were then used to produce a prediction using both the hand planning technique and the OPAL program. The resultant predictions were digitized using a customized computer program and compared with the actual outcome. The results show that there was marked individual variation when planning by hand and using the OPAL program. In the mandibular surgery group, hand planning and OPAL were of similar accuracy and few points differed significantly between prediction and outcome. However, for the bimaxillary group, a number of points showed bias and the hand planning technique appeared to be more accurate than the OPAL program, particularly in the region of the lips. Although the usefulness of predictions is acknowledged, these results suggest that they should be used with a certain amount of caution.

PMID: 15222716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe William Houston Medal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 2002.
Related Articles

The William Houston Medal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 2002.

J Orthod. 2004 Jun;31(2):86-97

Authors: Teague AM

The William Houston medal is a prestigious prize awarded to the individual achieving the most outstanding examination performance at the Membership in Orthodontics examination for the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. Five clinical cases treated by the candidate are presented as part of the final examination; two of these cases are described below. The first a Class III malocclusion, and the second a Class II division 1 malocclusion, were both treated by orthodontic camouflage.

PMID: 15210923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleAn orthopaedic approach to the treatment of Class III malocclusions in the ea...
Related Articles

An orthopaedic approach to the treatment of Class III malocclusions in the early mixed dentition.

Eur J Orthod. 2004 Apr;26(2):191-9

Authors: Cozza P, Marino A, Mucedero M

The aim of this investigation was to study cephalometrically the skeletal, dental and soft tissue modifications induced by a Delaire facemask and Bionator III appliance in a sample of 30 patients (17 boys and 13 girls), aged 4.1-9 years [mean 5.85 years, confidence interval (CI) 5.41-6.29], in the early mixed dentition with a skeletal Class III malocclusion caused by maxillary retrognathism (group 1) and compared with a control sample of 24 subjects (14 boys and 10 girls), aged 4-9 years (mean 5.97 years, CI 5.35-6.58) with untreated Class III malocclusions (group 2). For each patient a lateral cephalogram was taken before treatment (T0), after facemask removal (T1), and at the end of the retention period with a Bionator III (T2). Cephalometric analysis was carried out. The post-treatment cephalometric values in the treated group showed a forward displacement of the maxilla resulting in a statistically significant increase (P < 0.001) in the SNA angle, A-NPg (mm) and PNS-A (mm) linear values. There was a clockwise rotation of the mandible, with a decrease in the SNB angle and a satisfactory correction of the Class III relationship. The beneficial effects on the facial profile were confirmed by an increase in UL-EL distance and in NB--HL and NsPgs--HL angles, and by a decrease in the facial convexity angle. These findings indicate that the Delaire facemask and Bionator III treatment is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusions caused by maxillary retrognathism in the early mixed dentition.

PMID: 15130043 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[Study on the changes of TMJ stress before and after sagittal split ramus ost...
Related Articles

[Study on the changes of TMJ stress before and after sagittal split ramus osteotomy by 3D finite element method]

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2004 Feb;13(1):51-5

Authors: Fang B, Zhou Q, Shen GF, Cai Z

PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristic changes of the TMJ stress distributions, before and after SSRO for treating the skeletal class III malocclusion, being during centric occlusion. METHODS: CT scan was used to obtain 2-D transverse image of maxilla and mandible. Finite element models were established before and after SSRO. An analysis of the stress, strain, and displacement of TMJ configurations was done by three-finite element method. Paired t test was used to compare the stress before and after operation. RESULTS: The Von Mises stress on TMJ configurations was found to decrease significantly after mandibular set-back SSRO; The maximal and minimal principal stress and maximal displacement were also found to decrease after surgery; The stress of both sides of the TMJ was found to distribute symmetrically. CONCLUSION: Oral and maxillofacial deformity was treated by orthognathics surgery, jaws were repositional that induce the changes of the TMJ stress, the upper and lower further study should be done to determine the stress changes effecting the function and health of TMJ.

PMID: 15007483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text Article[APDI and ODI estimated from substitute palate plane]
Related Articles

[APDI and ODI estimated from substitute palate plane]

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2004 Feb;13(1):13-6

Authors: Chen ZQ, Qian YF, Shen G, Wang GM

PURPOSE: The substitute palate plane was defined at the cephalometrics of noncleft patients. APDI and ODI were estimated from substitute PP. It is expected that the APDI and ODI estimated from PP (APDI',ODI')can be extended to the cleft patients to illustrate the anteroposterior and vertical relationship between maxilla and mandible. METHODS: The cephalometrics of 30 patients of C-I,C-II and C-III were traced and so were in 30 patients of normal overbite,deep overbite and open bite. The substitute palate plane(PP') was defined. The inclination of the PP to the FH, APDI and ODI, the inclination of the substitute PP to the FH,APDI' and ODI' were measured. The APDI and APDI' of C-I, C-II and C-III patients were compared,The ODI and ODI' of normal overbite, deep overbite and open bite patients were also compared by group t test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between APDI and APDI' in C-I, C-II and C-III patients and also no significant difference between ODI and ODI' in normal overbite,deep overbite and open bite patients. It is showed the higher the ODI',the deeper the overbite. And the higher the APDI', the more mesial the molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: The APDI and ODI estimated from substitute PP can be used as an important criterion to judge the vertical and anteroposterior development of the the maxilla, especially in palate clefts patients.

PMID: 15007472 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe effect of a modified reverse headgear force applied with a facebow on the...
Related Articles

The effect of a modified reverse headgear force applied with a facebow on the dentofacial structures.

Eur J Orthod. 2004 Feb;26(1):51-7

Authors: G&#xF6;yenç Y, Ersoy S

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a modified reverse headgear force applied with a facebow on the dentofacial structures of patients with skeletal Class III malocclusions characterized by maxillary retrognathism. Thirty individuals before the pubertal peak and in the mixed dentition were selected. Fifteen subjects (seven males, eight females, mean age 9.2 years) who formed the treatment group were compared with a control group comprising seven males and eight females (mean age 8.6 years). Maxillary deficiency and negative overjet were noted in all individuals included in the treatment and control groups. The combination of a full coverage maxillary removable appliance and an embedded facebow was used for treatment. The outer arms of the facebow were bent to deliver the force through the approximate centre of resistance of the maxilla. Extra-oral elastics extended from the reverse headgear to the outer arms of the facebow. Statistical analysis indicated significant changes in angles SNA, NV-A, SV-ANS, SV-PNS and PP measurements, suggesting that the maxilla moved anteriorly. There was, however, no statistically significant difference in SN-MP, SN-PP and MP-PP measurements between the treatment and control groups. These results suggest that there was no maxillary or mandibular rotation, but that the molars moved mesially in the protraction group. The U6-PP(V) dimension did not display significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment measurements in the treated group. Anterior movement of the maxilla was obtained without rotation of the jaws and upper and lower maxillary heights were unaffected.

PMID: 14994882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleAn investigation of cervicovertebral morphology in different sagittal skeleta...
Related Articles

An investigation of cervicovertebral morphology in different sagittal skeletal growth patterns.

Eur J Orthod. 2004 Feb;26(1):43-9

Authors: Bayda&#x15F; B, Yavuz I, Durna N, Ceylan I

The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare cervicovertebral morphology in subjects with different sagittal skeletal patterns. The material comprised lateral head films of 90 untreated subjects, 45 girls and 45 boys, aged 13-15 years. The radiographs were obtained in the natural head position using a fluid level method. The subjects were divided into three groups according to ANB angle: ANB angle between 1 and 5 degrees (skeletal Class I), larger than 5 degrees (skeletal Class II), and smaller than 1 degree (skeletal Class III). Each ANB group consisted of 30 subjects, 15 girls and 15 boys. Twenty-nine linear and four area measurements were used to assess cervicovertebral morphology. Differences between the ANB groups and between genders were assessed by means of analysis of variance and the least significant difference test. In addition, cephalometric measurements for all subjects were subjected to discriminant analysis. The results of the analysis of variance showed that there were statistically significant differences in the measurements of the lumen length of C1, inferior depths of C2 and C4, anterior intervertebral spaces of C2 and C3, posterior intervertebral space of C3, and anterior and posterior body heights of C4 among the ANB groups. The total length of C1, inferior depths of C2-C5, anterior intervertebral spaces of C2-C4, posterior intervertebral space of C2, anterior body heights of C4 and C5, and posterior body heights of C3-C5 demonstrated significant gender differences. The results of the discriminant analysis indicated that 54.4 per cent of the original grouped cases were correctly classified in the total sample. The final discriminant model was able to classify correctly 20 of the 30 Class I subjects (66.7 per cent), 17 of the 30 Class II subjects (56.7 per cent), and 12 of the 30 Class III subjects (40.0 per cent).

PMID: 14994881 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleGrowth prediction in Class III patients using cluster and discriminant functi...
Related Articles

Growth prediction in Class III patients using cluster and discriminant function analysis.

Eur J Orthod. 2003 Dec;25(6):599-608

Authors: Abu Alhaija ES, Richardson A

This longitudinal retrospective cephalometric study was undertaken in an attempt to identify subgroups of subjects with Class III malocclusions and to find discriminant functions which would help to differentiate between favourable and unfavourable growers. The material consisted of cephalometric films of 115 Class III untreated patients (59 females and 56 males, with a mean age of 11.6 +/- 1.7 and 12.7 +/- 1.3 years, respectively) who were observed for a minimum period of 1 year. All subjects were Caucasian and none could achieve an edge to edge occlusion. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify Class III subgroups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was first applied to the whole sample and later to each of the clusters produced. Good and poor growers were identified on the basis of the change in Wits measurements with projection on the maxillary/mandibular planes bisector. The cut-off point between good and bad growers was a Wits value of 2.5 mm which was the upper limit of the 95 per cent confidence interval of measurement reproducibility. Three clinically distinguishable clusters were produced, namely long, short and intermediate facial types. The discrimination percentage (80 per cent) achieved when the DFA was performed on the whole sample was satisfactory. However, when the analysis was used on each of the clusters separately, the equation successfully predicted a good or poor outcome in 92 per cent of cluster I, in 85 per cent of cluster II and in 100 per cent of cluster III.

PMID: 14700266 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleOrthodontic and orthognathic management of a patient with osteogenesis imperf...
Related Articles

Orthodontic and orthognathic management of a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

J Orthod. 2003 Dec;30(4):291-6

Authors: Kindelan J, Tobin M, Roberts-Harry D, Loukota RA

This case report describes a patient's severe Class III malocclusion, managed with a combination of orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. The medical history was complicated by osteogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta. In addition the patient was a Jehovah's Witness. Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta carry an increased risk of perioperative haemorrhage, and this led to bimaxillary surgery being carried out as two discrete surgical episodes for the patient described. In addition, the risk of enamel fracture led to orthodontic bands being cemented on all teeth. In spite of the increased risks a successful outcome was achieved.

PMID: 14634166 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleLong-term effects of chin-cap therapy on the temporomandibular joints.
Related Articles

Long-term effects of chin-cap therapy on the temporomandibular joints.

Eur J Orthod. 2003 Oct;25(5):471-5

Authors: Arat ZM, Ak&#xE7;am MO, Gökalp H

It is commonly believed that upward/backward forces applied to the condyle by a chin-cap cause temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). In the current study the long-term follow-up (2-11 years) of patients treated with a chin-cap was investigated regarding signs and symptoms of TMD. The treatment group consisted of 32 individuals who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion treated using chin-cap therapy (mean age 18.4 years). The two control groups contained 39 untreated subjects with skeletal Class III malocclusions (mean age 15.5 years) and 53 dental students (mean age 19.2 years) with acceptable normal occlusions. Functional examination of the subjects was carried out and those with at least one sign/symptom (clicking, pain, or deviation) were identified as the 'symptomatic' subgroup. The distribution of symptomatic individuals was 25 per cent in the treatment group, 23 per cent in the Class III malocclusion group, and 41.5 per cent in the normal group (dental students). In addition, the frequency of signs and symptoms of TMD in the symptomatic individuals was also investigated. There were no signs of crepitus in any subject, clicking was found in 50 per cent of the treatment group and pain in 54.5 per cent of the normal group. The results of this long-term follow-up indicate that chin-cap treatment is neither a risk factor nor a prevention for TMD. Age and stress factors should always be considered in the evaluation of TMD.

PMID: 14609015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticlePseudo-Class III malocclusion treatment with Balters' Bionator.
Related Articles

Pseudo-Class III malocclusion treatment with Balters' Bionator.

J Orthod. 2003 Sep;30(3):203-15

Authors: Giancotti A, Maselli A, Mampieri G, Spanò E

The aim of this article is to show the use of the Balters' Bionator in pseudo-Class III treatment. The importance of differentiating between true Class III and pseudo-Class III is emphasized. The therapeutic results of a Balters' Bionator appliance are presented in three case reports of subjects in the mixed dentition. In this stage of development it is possible to correct an isolated problem. The use of the Bionator III in this kind of malocclusion enabled the correction of a dental malocclusion in a few months and therapeutic stability of a mesially-positioned mandible encouraging favourable skeletal growth.

PMID: 14530417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleClass III Twin Blocks: a case series.
Related Articles

Class III Twin Blocks: a case series.

J Orthod. 2003 Sep;30(3):197-201

Authors: Kidner G, DiBiase A, DiBiase D

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of Class III Twin Blocks for the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. Subjects and Method: 14 subjects were consecutively treated with a modified version of the Class III Twin Block appliance. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at the start and end of treatment were assessed digitally. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 10 years and mean treatment time was 6.6 months. The cephalometric analysis of changes during treatment shows proclination of the upper incisors [mean 5.1 degrees, SD 5.1], retroclination of the lower incisors [mean -4.5 degrees, SD 3.9], reduction in angle SNB [mean -1.3 degrees, SD 1.8] and an increase in the maxillary/ mandibular planes angle (mean 2.1 degrees, SD 2.2]. Average cephalometric digitizations and photographs of a clinical case are shown. CONCLUSIONS: Class III Twin Blocks can be used successfully for early treatment of Class III malocclusion. A randomly allocated prospective study is required to fully evaluate the efficacy of this appliance.

PMID: 14530416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleThe effect of Fränkel's function regulator type III on the apical base.
Related Articles

The effect of Fränkel's function regulator type III on the apical base.

Eur J Orthod. 2003 Jun;25(3):311-8

Authors: Miethke RR, Lindenau S, Dietrich K

Dento-alveolar and skeletal effects of orthopaedic treatment have always been the subject of controversial scientific discussions. The objective of this retrospective study was to demonstrate the changes in the dental arch and the apical base of both jaws following therapy with Fränkel's function regulator type III (FR III). For this purpose, 42 Class III patients (28 females, 14 males, mean age 7.5 years) were selected according to strict criteria. The control group consisted of 16 patients (eight females, eight males, mean age 8.3 years) with minor malocclusion symptoms. Study models of all patients at the beginning and end of treatment were evaluated using a sophisticated measuring system. Apart from common parameters of model analysis, cusp inclination of the first molars, and apical bases of the maxilla and mandible were recorded to facilitate a comprehensive evaluation of treatment effects (including growth). The FR III stimulated the development of the maxilla, thus resulting in a more physiological growth pattern. Mandibular prognathism, however, was still discernible after therapy in the Class III patients, even though mandibular growth did not differ significantly between the two groups.

PMID: 12831222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleSegregation analysis of mandibular prognathism in Libya.
Related Articles

Segregation analysis of mandibular prognathism in Libya.

J Dent Res. 2003 Jul;82(7):523-7

Authors: El-Gheriani AA, Maher BS, El-Gheriani AS, Sciote JJ, Abu-Shahba FA, Al-Azemi R, Marazita ML

The etiology of mandibular prognathism has been attributed to various genetic inheritance patterns and some environmental factors. The variation in inheritance patterns can be partly due to the use of different statistical approaches in the respective studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of genetic influences in the etiology of this trait. We performed segregation analysis on 37 families of patients currently being treated for mandibular prognathism. Mandibular prognathism was treated as a qualitative trait, with cephalometric radiographs, dental models, and photographs used to verify diagnosis. Segregation analysis of a prognathic mandible in the entire dataset supported a transmissible Mendelian major effect, with a dominant mode of inheritance determined to be the most parsimonious.

PMID: 12821712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleLong-term follow-up of early treatment with reverse headgear.
Related Articles

Long-term follow-up of early treatment with reverse headgear.

Eur J Orthod. 2003 Feb;25(1):95-102

Authors: H&#xE4;gg U, Tse A, Bendeus M, Rabie AB

The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of treatment with reverse headgear in young individuals with a reverse overjet and a skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency. Lateral cephalograms were obtained from 21 subjects (8.4 +/- 1.5 years; 17 girls and four boys) of an original sample of 30 consecutively treated young patients who were followed for 8 years after active treatment. There was a drop-out of nine subjects; their dentofacial morphology at start of treatment did not differ from those who remained in the study. The remaining subjects were divided into a stable group and a relapse group. The results revealed that two out of three patients maintained a positive overjet 8 years after active treatment. The immediate treatment outcome in the sagittal plane was the same for the stable and relapse groups, but lower face height increased (P < 0.08) and the mandibular plane angle opened (P < 0.05) more in the relapse group. During the 8-year follow-up period, the dental compensation was similar in both groups, but the mandible outgrew the maxilla by four times in the relapse group, compared with twice that in the stable group. In young individuals diagnosed with maxillary deficiency treated with reverse headgear and who have an immediate positive treatment response, there is a potential risk that about one-third might be candidates for orthognathic surgery later in life, because of an unfavourable growth pattern.

PMID: 12608729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleMaxillary canine displacement; further twists in the tale.
Related Articles

Maxillary canine displacement; further twists in the tale.

Eur J Orthod. 2003 Feb;25(1):43-7

Authors: Chate RA

This report describes two cases seen over a 5-year period, each with a labially impacted maxillary canine found in close proximity to the adjacent first permanent premolar, which had a deviated palatal root. The issue as to whether the premolar root deviation either produced the canine impaction or vice versa is discussed, both with reference to the processes considered to be involved in normal tooth eruption, and to three previously published similar cases.

PMID: 12608722 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleOcclusal interferences in orthodontic patients before and after treatment, an...
Related Articles

Occlusal interferences in orthodontic patients before and after treatment, and in subjects with minor orthodontic treatment need.

Eur J Orthod. 2002 Dec;24(6):677-87

Authors: Olsson M, Lindqvist B

Different opinions have been expressed concerning the effect of orthodontic treatment on mandibular function. One factor discussed is occlusal interferences. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of occlusal interferences in 210 orthodontic patients before (mean age 12 years 8 months) and after (mean age 16 years 10 months) treatment and to compare them with subjects with minor orthodontic treatment need. The results showed a decrease in retruded contact position/intercuspal position (RCP/ICP) interferences in all morphological deviations, age, and gender groups. The prevalence of mediotrusion interferences decreased in some types of malocclusions whilst in others there was no change. One reason for this is that treatment was started when the majority of the patients had no second or third molars erupted. At the final registration, the second molars were erupted in all patients, and the third molars were erupted in approximately 25 per cent. Mediotrusion interferences were more consistent with basal morphological deviations, for example, Class III relationships and anterior open bite were more consistent in the same person, and more difficult to eliminate than RCP/ICP interferences. RCP/ICP interferences, often caused by dental deviation in position, size, and shape, were easier to correct. Optimal orthodontic treatment, if necessary, including selective grinding, will decrease the prevalence of occlusal interferences.

PMID: 12512785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Free Full Text ArticleCleft type and Angle's classification of malocclusion in Korean cleft patients.
Related Articles

Cleft type and Angle's classification of malocclusion in Korean cleft patients.

Eur J Orthod. 2002 Dec;24(6):647-53

Authors: Baek SH, Moon HS, Yang WS

This study was performed to investigate the contributing factors, such as cleft type, side of cleft, patient's age, and gender, associated with Angle's classification of malocclusion in Korean cleft patients. The records of 250 cleft patients (175 males, 75 females) who attended the Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University Dental Hospital between 1988 and 1999 were examined. The percentages of subjects with cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and alveolus (CLA), cleft palate (CP), and cleft lip and palate (CLP) were 7.6, 19.2, 9.6, and 63.6, respectively. The overall distributions of unilateral and bilateral clefts were 76 and 24 per cent, respectively. The overall percentages of Class I, II, and III malocclusions were 18.5, 8.8, and 72.7. The frequency of Class III malocclusions was most prevalent in all age groups. Bivariate analysis showed that whilst gender was not significant, the type of cleft significantly influenced the development of a Class III malocclusion (P < 0.01). Using logistic regression analysis, subjects in the CP (P < 0.05) and CLP groups (P < 0.01) were 3.9 and 5.5 times more likely to have a Class III malocclusion than those in the CL group. There was, however, no statistical difference in the prevalence of a Class III malocclusion between the CL and the CLA groups (P > 0.05). When the degree of cleft involvement in the palate increased, so did the predominance of a Class III malocclusion.

PMID: 12512782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



  Translate a Phrase or Word
  
  from

Adapted MeSH Browser © Dentalarticles.com | Disclaimer