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G-CEM dual-cure self-adhesive universal resin cement has been developed for adhesive luting of all-ceramic, metal and composite indirect restorations. With CAD-CAM and metal-free restorations becoming so popular, G-CEM was developed with the aim of combining improved handling and self-adhesion of conventional cements with the superior mechanical properties, adhesion and aesthetic qualities of resin cements.
With high bond strengths in both the self-cure and light-cure modes you are guaranteed long term stability. Combining a higher fluoride release than other self-adhesive resins, with fantastic colour stabilisation, G-CEM has proved to be extremely popular.

Manufacturer: GC Europe


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Related Articles

Self-adhesive resin cements: a literature review.

J Adhes Dent. 2008 Aug;10(4):251-8

Authors: Radovic I, Monticelli F, Goracci C, Vulicevic ZR, Ferrari M

PURPOSE: To summarize research conducted on self-adhesive cements and provide information on their properties, based on the results of original scientific full-length papers from peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search was conducted using the term "self-adhesive cement OR (trade names of currently available products)". RESULTS: Only in vitro studies that investigated two commercially available self-adhesive cements have been published so far. The results were summarized into the following categories: adhesion to tooth substrates (enamel, dentin, root dentin), adhesion to restorative materials (endodontic posts, ceramics, titanium abutments), marginal adaptation, microleakage, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, chemical adhesion and fluoride release, and ratings in clinical use. CONCLUSION: The majority of available literature data is based on studies that investigated one of the self-adhesive cements that are currently available to clinicians. According to the in vitro results, self-adhesive cement adhesion to dentin and various restorative materials is satisfactory and comparable to other multistep resin cements, while adhesion to enamel appears to be a weak link in their bonding properties. Long-term clinical performance of these materials needs to be assessed prior to making a general recommendation for their use.

PMID: 18792695 [PubMed - in process]




Related Articles

Microtensile bond strengths and scanning electron microscopic evaluation of self-adhesive and self-etch resin cements to intact and etched enamel.

J Prosthet Dent. 2008 Sep;100(3):203-10

Authors: Duarte S, Botta AC, Meire M, Sadan A

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The longevity of indirect adhesively cemented restorations is directly related to the bond quality of resin cements to dental tissues. Bonding to cervical enamel can generate significantly lower bond strengths than bonding to other enamel areas. The effect of enamel pretreatment on bond strengths of self-etch and self-adhesive resin cements to cervical enamel remains undetermined. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cervical enamel bond strengths of self-adhesive, self-etch resin cements according to acid pretreatment, using a total-etch resin cement as the control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The proximal surfaces of 20 extracted molars were sectioned to obtain 40 enamel rectangles with an area of 8.0 x 4.0 mm. The rectangular enamel specimens were assigned to 1 of 5 enamel experimental groups: intact enamel + RelyX Unicem (UN), etched enamel + UN (UNpa), intact enamel + Multilink (ML), etched enamel + ML (MLpa), and the total-etch-based RelyX ARC (RX; control group). Standard 8.0 x 4.0 x 6.0-mm composite resin blocks (Z250) were cemented to all specimens. The bonded enamel surfaces were sectioned into sticks with a cross-section of 0.8 +/-0.2 mm(2) and tested to failure in tension mode at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were submitted to 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's HSD post hoc test (alpha=.05). Additionally, the enamel etching pattern was investigated for all experimental groups using field-emission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed significant differences among different resin cements (P<.001) and phosphoric acid etching (P<.002). The highest mean (SD) bond strengths were obtained with UNpa (32.92 (4.23)) > RX (19.40 (9.47)). Acid etching of enamel before application of self-etch resin cement did not improve the mean bond strengths (SD) for self-etch resin cement [ML (5.38 (5.97)); MLpa (5.23 (1.1))]. Self-adhesive and self-etch resin cements yielded the lowest significant mean bond strengths (SD) when applied on intact enamel: UN (13.03 (2.82)) > ML (5.38 (5.97)). Scanning electron microscopy showed a consistent etching pattern for phosphoric acid-etched specimens. Self-etch and self-adhesive resin cements applied directly to intact enamel showed inconsistent areas of etching. CONCLUSIONS: Etching cervical enamel surfaces resulted in significantly higher bond strengths for self-adhesive resin cement. For self-etch resin cement, etching did not improve bond strength.

PMID: 18762032 [PubMed - in process]




Related Articles

Effect of self-etchant pH on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008 Aug;134(2):203-8

Authors: Ostby AW, Bishara SE, Denehy GE, Laffoon JF, Warren JJ

INTRODUCTION: Self-etching primers (SEPs) have been used successfully during bonding to reduce technique sensitivity while minimizing the etching of enamel. Although serving the same purpose, SEPs differ in acidity and aggressiveness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the pH of SEPs affects the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Forty-five molars were cleaned, mounted, and randomly divided into 3 groups with different SEPs: in group 1 (control), 15 orthodontic brackets were bonded to the teeth with Transbond Plus (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) with a pH of about 1.0; in group 2, 15 brackets were bonded with Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M ESPE, St Paul, Minn) with a pH of 0.9 to 1.0; in group 3, 15 brackets were bonded with Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray America, New York, NY), with a pH of 2.7. All teeth were bonded with Transbond XT paste (3M Unitek). The teeth were debonded within half an hour after initial bonding by using a universal testing machine. The residual adhesive on each tooth was evaluated. ANOVA was used to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of the 3 groups, and the chi-square test was used to compare the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores for the 3 groups. RESULTS: ANOVA indicated significant differences between the groups. The Duncan multiple range test indicated that Clearfil S3 Bond produced a significantly stronger mean SBS (6.5 +/- 1.9 MPa) than the Transbond Plus system (mean, 4.2 +/- 1.9 MPa). No significant differences were seen between the SBS of the brackets bonded with Adper (mean, 5.9 +/- 3.4 MPa) and the other 2 groups. The comparisons of the ARI scores between the 3 groups indicated that bracket failure mode was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: The SEP with the highest pH (least acidic), Clearfil S3 Bond, bonded brackets successfully and with the strongest SBS; this suggests that the pH of the SEP is not the primary determinant of the SBS. The clinician should be aware that some SEPs can leave the enamel surface healthier after debonding.

PMID: 18675201 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Related Articles

Microleakage of all-ceramic crowns using self-etching resin luting agents.

Oper Dent. 2008 Jul-Aug;33(4):392-9

Authors: Trajtenberg CP, Caram SJ, Kiat-amnuay S

Self-etching adhesive systems are a new generation of materials that possess acidic methacrylates that can generate self-adhesion. There is limited data reported on the marginal leakage of ceramic restorations bonded with self-etching adhesive materials. This study assessed and compared the amount of microleakage of bonded ceramic crowns using three different types of self-etching adhesive systems with and without a die spacer. Eighteen human molars were prepared for all-ceramic IPS Empress crowns and the teeth were randomly assigned to each experimental group. The buccal side had the preparation finish line 1.5 mm below the CEJ, and the lingual finish line was 1.5 mm above the CEJ, creating margins in enamel and dentin. Two die-spacing techniques were used (three layers or no layer of die spacer). Each crown restoration was cemented with one of three self-etching resin luting agents (Panavia F 2.0, Multilink and RelyX Unicem). The specimens were thermally cycled for 1000 cycles, then immersed in a 5% methylene blue dye solution for 24 hours. The teeth were then rinsed, embedded in clear epoxy resin and sectioned. A total of 60 sections were evaluated for each type of resin luting agent using digital image analysis at 70x magnification. A novel formula, using mean percentage of microleakage, was developed by dividing the extent of dye penetration along the tooth/resin luting cement interphase and the total perimeter of the tooth crown surface. The data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance at the 0.05 level of significance. Fisher's PLSD intervals were calculated for comparing significant means. Panavia F 2.0 showed a lower degree of microleakage than RelyX Unicem and Multilink at both the enamel and dentin margins. Interactions of the main effects (cement, margin and die spacer technique) were all highly significant (p< or =0.004). The degree of microleakage was higher on the dentin margins than on the enamel margins (p<0.0001). The degree of microleakage for the die spacer group was not significantly different from the group with no die spacer technique (p>0.1). Overall, Panavia F 2.0 showed the least microleakage, followed by RelyX Unicem and Multilink, respectively.

PMID: 18666496 [PubMed - in process]




Related Articles

Effect of curing modes of dual-curing luting systems and root regions on retention of translucent fiber posts in root canals.

J Adhes Dent. 2008 Jun;10(3):219-26

Authors: Zhang L, Magni E, Radovic I, Wang YJ, Chen JH, Ferrari M

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of different curing modes of dual-curing luting systems and root regions on the push-out strength of fiber posts to intraradicular dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two extracted premolars with a single root canal were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the roots were endodontically treated. The roots were divided into two groups according to two dual-curing luting systems: (1) XP BOND-Dual Cure/Calibra resin cement; (2) XP BOND-Dual Cure/FluoroCore 2. For each luting system, three different curing modes were applied to the dentin adhesive and resin cement: "Self-cure and Self-cure (SC&SC)", "Self-cure and Dual-cure (SC&DC)", and "Dual-cure and Dual-cure (DC&DC)". Translucent Easy fiber posts (Dentsply Maillefer) were luted in the roots. A thin-slice push-out test was performed, and the data of push-out strength were analyzed using three-way ANOVA with luting system, curing mode, and root region (apical, middle and coronal) as factors. Tukey's test was used for post-hoc comparisons. RESULTS: The push-out strength of XP BOND-Dual Cure/Calibra was significantly lower when Calibra resin cement was self-cured than when it was dual-cured (SC&SC: 6.04 +/- 2.65 MPa; SC&DC: 10.69 +/- 3.01 MPa; DC&DC: 10.72 +/- 3.63 MPa; p < 0.05). The curing modes did not affect the push-out strength of XP BOND-Dual Cure/FluoroCore 2 (SC&SC: 7.90 +/- 3.94 MPa; SC&DC: 8.32 +/- 2.73 MPa; DC&DC: 9.27 +/- 4.12 MPa; p > 0.05). The coronal push-out strength was significantly higher than the apical push-out strength (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Retention of fiber posts in root canals was affected by the curing modes of dual-curing luting system and root regions.

PMID: 18652271 [PubMed - in process]




Related Articles

Shear bond strength between nickel-chromium and human dentine using a dual-cure, self-adhesive universal resin luting agent.

Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2008 Jun;16(2):85-8

Authors: Chai J, Chu FC, Chow TW, Liang BM

The adhesive property of a dual-cure, self-adhesive universal resin luting agent (Rely X Unicem, 3M ESPE) between nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and human dentine was compared with three conventional resin luting agents (Calibra, Dentsply; Panavia-F, Kuraray; All-bond 2 C & B cement, Bisco). Ten Ni-Cr rods were bonded to human dentine with each of the four luting agents, and were subjected to shear bond test. Results showed that there was no significant difference in shear bond strengths among the luting agents. A dual-cure, self-adhesive universal resin luting agent was shown to have comparable adhesive property between Ni-Cr and human dentine as three other conventional resin luting agents. Given the simplicity of use of the dual-cure, self-adhesive universal resin luting agent, it appears to be promising in clinical applications.

PMID: 18637385 [PubMed - in process]




Related Articles

Is adhesive cementation of endodontic posts necessary?

J Endod. 2008 Aug;34(8):1006-10

Authors: Naumann M, Sterzenbach G, Rosentritt M, Beuer F, Frankenberger R

Recently, the appropriate, durable bond of adhesive systems and composite resin cements to retain endodontic posts was challenged. The question arises whether it would be possible to place glass fiber posts in a less technique sensitive conventional nonadhesive approach. The influence of nonadhesive, self-adhesive, and etch-and-rinse systems on load capability of postendodontic restorations was studied. Human maxillary central incisors were divided into 4 groups (n = 10). Teeth were endodontically treated and restored by using glass fiber posts luted with different cements/composite resin combinations: (1) RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany)/Clearfil Core (Kuraray Europe, Duesseldorf, Germany), (2) RelyX Unicem/LuxaCore, (3) zinc phosphate cement/Clearfil, and (4) LuxaCore (DMG, Hamburg, Germany)/Clearfil. A 2 mm-ferrule preparation was performed. All specimens received adhesively luted all-ceramic crowns and were exposed to thermal cycling and mechanical loading before subsequent static loading. Significant differences between the experimental groups regarding load capability and fracture patterns were observed. The conventional non-adhesive post cementation is less reliable to withstand simulated functional forces compared to adhesive approaches.

PMID: 18634936 [PubMed - in process]




Related Articles

Shear bond strength of one etch-and-rinse and five self-etching dental adhesives when used by six operators.

Acta Odontol Scand. 2008 Aug;66(4):243-9

Authors: Soderholm KJ, Soares F, Argumosa M, Loveland C, Bimstein E, Guelmann M

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that some single-bottle self-etching adhesives bond as well to enamel and dentin as a typical two-bottle etch-and-rinse adhesive. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six operators used one two-bottle etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive (Scotchbond MP) and five all-in-one self-etching adhesives (iBond Gluma Inside, Clearfil S(3) Bond, iBond Experimental, Xeno IV, and G-BOND). Each operator carried out six bondings to enamel and six bondings to dentin with each adhesive. After 24 h of storage in water at 37 degrees C, bond strength was determined in shear. RESULTS: The pooled results of all the adhesives revealed no significant difference (p>0.05) in bond strength between dentin and enamel. However, there were significant differences (p<0.0001) between the different adhesives. The etch-and-rinse adhesive did better than the self-etching adhesives when substrate was not an issue (pooled enamel and dentin results). On comparing the performance of the different adhesives, it became clear that there were significant interactions (p<0.0001) between substrates and products. There were also significant differences (p<0.0001) between operators, and the interaction between operators and products was significant (p<0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: The tested etch-and-rinse adhesive did better than the tested self-etching adhesives. The shear bond strength results were also strongly affected by the operator as well as by the interaction between operator and used product. The pooled bond strength values of the different adhesives revealed no difference in bond strength to dentin versus enamel.

PMID: 18615325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Related Articles

Effect of pulpal pressure on the microtensile bond strength of luting resin cements to human dentin.

Dent Mater. 2008 Jun 21;

Authors: Hiraishi N, Yiu CK, King NM, Tay FR

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of pulpal pressure on the microtensile bond strength (mTBS) of luting resin cements to human dentin and the permeability of dentin surfaces pre-treated with an adhesive and a self-etching primer. METHODS: Cylindrical composite blocks were luted with resin cements (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE: ARC; Panavia F, Kuraray Medical Inc.: PF; RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE: UN) in the absence or presence of simulated pulpal pressure. The application of Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE) and ED primer 2.0 (Kuraray) was performed under 0cm H(2)O. After each resin cement was applied, the pulpal pressure group was subjected to 20cm H(2)O of hydrostatic pressure for 10min during the initial setting period. Testing for mTBS was performed on 0.9mmx0.9mm sectioned beams after 24h water-storage. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate the fractured surfaces after mTBS testing and additional dentin surfaces that were treated by an etchant, ED primer 2.0 and UN. Fluid permeability was measured on dentin surfaces that were applied with Adper Single Bond 2 and ED primer 2.0. RESULTS: Application of pulpal pressure reduced mTBS significantly in groups ARC and PF. Porous bonding interfaces due to water permeability through the cured adhesive were observed on fractured surfaces. Dentin surfaces that were applied with the adhesive and the primer were more permeable than smear layer-covered dentin. The mTBS of UN was significantly lower than ARC and PF regardless of the absence/presence of pulpal pressure. SIGNIFICANCE: Fluid permeation during the initial setting period deteriorated the bonding quality of resin cements.

PMID: 18573523 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Related Articles

Bonding of one-step and two-step self-etching primer adhesives to dentin with different tubule orientations.

Acta Odontol Scand. 2008 Jun;66(3):159-68

Authors: Asande Adebayo O, Francis Burrow M, John Tyas M

OBJECTIVES: To determine the microshear bond strengths of five 'all-in-one' adhesives and two 2-step self-etching primer adhesives to dentin with different tubule orientations and to compare bond strengths between the adhesives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human adult molar teeth were sectioned to obtain dentin pieces with tubule orientations perpendicular or parallel/oblique to the bonded surface. Two 2-step self-etching primer adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), Optibond Solo Plus SE Bond (Op. SE)) and five all-in-one adhesives (Clearfil S(3) Bond (S(3)), Optibond All-in-One Bond (Op. AIO), G-Bond, Go!, and Xeno IV) were applied to dentin in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. Resin composite cylinders were bonded to superficial and deep dentin using microtubes (0.75 mm internal diameter and 1.5 mm high). Bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, then stressed in shear at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until bond failure. Maximum load at failure (N) was recorded and converted to MPa. Statistical analyses were carried out using independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS: Though bond strengths varied slightly, four all-in-one adhesives (Op. AIO, G-Bond, Go!, and Xeno IV) showed no significant differences in microshear bond strengths regardless of dentin depth (superficial or deep) or dentin tubule orientation (perpendicular or parallel/oblique). CSE, Op. SE, and S(3) showed significantly lower bond strengths to deep dentin with a tubule orientation perpendicular to the surface. CONCLUSION: Most of the all-in-one adhesive systems used in this study appear to bond equally well to dentin independently of tubule orientation and depth. One two-step self-etching primer adhesive bonded significantly better than the all-in-one adhesives.

PMID: 18568475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




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Fracture resistance of anterior teeth restored with a novel nonmetallic post.

J Can Dent Assoc. 2008 Jun;74(5):441

Authors: Abo El-Ela OA, Atta OA, El-Mowafy O

OBJECTIVE: To determine the fracture resistance of endodontically treated anterior teeth restored with a novel nonmetallic post in combination with self-etching adhesives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extracted maxillary anterior teeth were sterilized with gamma irradiation, and each crown was severed 2 mm above the cementoenamel junction. Endodontic treatment was performed, and the teeth were divided into 7 test groups according to the post-adhesive combination used (n = 8 in each group). The following combinations of posts and adhesives were used: group 1, ParaPost stainless steel post with glass ionomer cement (control group); group 2, Light Post post with Clearfil SE Bond bonding agent and Panavia-F adhesive; group 3, Light Post post with Xeno-III bonding agent and Panavia-F adhesive; group 4, ParaPost Fiber White post with Clearfil SE Bond bonding agent and Panavia-F adhesive; group 5, ParaPost Fiber White post with Xeno-III bonding agent and Panavia-F adhesive; group 6, everStick post with Clearfil SE Bond bonding agent and Panavia-F adhesive; and group 7, everStick post with Xeno-III bonding agent and Panavia-F adhesive. Core build-ups to restore anatomic form were made from light-cured composite (TPH3). Specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C. The roots of each tooth were embedded in an acrylic base, and the teeth were mounted at 135 degrees to the horizontal. The teeth were loaded in an Instron machine, and loading was applied to the point of fracture. Fracture loads were recorded, means and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated, and the data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey"s tests. RESULTS: The mean fracture load (and SD) for each group was as follows: for group 1, 536.8 (75.1) N; for group 2, 1,000.1 (190.9) N; for group 3, 1,049.9 (231.5) N; for group 4, 1,548.5 (290.0) N; for group 5, 1,171.3 (296.9) N; for group 6, 1,711.7 (516.7) N; and for group 7, 1,825.7 (527.3) N. ANOVA revealed significant differences among the groups (p < 0.001). In addition, the mean fracture value for group 7 was significantly higher than those of the other groups p < 0.05) except for groups 4 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a novel glass fibre post (the everStick post) was associated with the highest mean fracture force for maxillary anterior teeth, regardless of the bonding agent used, whereas the stainless steel post was associated with the lowest mean fracture force.

PMID: 18538068 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Related Articles

The effect of dentin-cleaning agents on resin cement bond strength to dentin.

J Am Dent Assoc. 2008 Jun;139(6):751-8

Authors: Saraç D, Bulucu B, Saraç YS, Kulunk S

BACKGROUND: Provisional cement remnants on dentin affect the bond strength of resin cements to dentin. The authors investigated the effects of dentin-cleaning agents and etching systems on the bond strength of adhesive resin cement. METHODS: The authors removed the provisional cement from the dentin surfaces of the specimens and then cleaned the surfaces with the dentin-cleaning agents Sikko Tim (VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany), Cavity Cleanser (Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill.) or Consepsis Scrub (Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah). They used adhesive resin cement after applying the different etching adhesive systems. Then they examined the dentin surfaces by using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The authors analyzed data by means of a two-way analysis of variance with Tukey honestly significant difference tests (alpha= .05). They found that specimens cleaned with Sikko Tim and Consepsis Scrub had higher shear bond strength values than did those in the no-treatment control group or the group cleaned with Cavity Cleanser. The specimens treated with the total-etching adhesive system had higher shear bond strength than did those treated with the self-etching adhesive systems. CONCLUSIONS: Sikko Tim and Consepsis Scrub were effective in removing provisional cement. Adhesive resin cement showed higher bond strength when used in conjunction with the total-etching adhesive system. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The use of an effective dentin cleaner before cementation with resin cement can increase bond strength.

PMID: 18519999 [PubMed - in process]




Related Articles

Sodium hypochlorite as dentin pretreatment for etch-and-rinse single-bottle and two-step self-etching adhesives: atomic force microscope and tensile bond strength evaluation.

J Adhes Dent. 2008 Feb;10(2):135-44

Authors: Fawzy AS, Amer MA, El-Askary FS

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using 5.25% commercial sodium hypochlorite treatment prior to the application of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives on dentin surface microtopography and tensile bond strength. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two noncarious, nonrestored human third molars were collected. The occlusal enamel of all teeth was removed using diamond disks to expose flat dentin surfaces. The exposed dentin surfaces were abraded using 600-grit SiC disks, to create a uniform dentin smear layer. For AFM characterization, 12 teeth were equally divided into 4 groups according to the proposed dentin surface treatment. Three dentin disks, 2 mm thick, were evaluated per group using tapping mode assessment. Twenty teeth were used for TBS and SEM evaluation and were equally divided into 4 groups, according to the proposed dentin surface treatment. For TBS, 8 dentin/composite slabs, 2 mm thick, were used in each group, while for SEM evaluation 2 slabs were used. Each slab was tested in tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure occurred. The samples were examined using SEM operated at 30 kv to evaluate the hybrid layer photographically at 1500X. Statistical analysis was carried out using StatsDirect 2.5.7. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple-comparison post-hoc tests were performed to test the difference between roughness parameters and TBS between groups. RESULTS: Sodium hypochlorite followed by the application of 37% phosphoric acid significantly increased the arithmetic average of the absolute values of surface height deviations (Sa), the surface area ratio which expresses the ratio between the surface area (taking the z height into account) and the area of the flat x,y plane (Sdr), and the surface bearing index (Sbi) parameters, while the application of sodium hypochlorite prior to the application of the self-etching primer significantly increased the valley fluid retention index (Svi) parameter. Self-etching primer without sodium hypochlorite pretreatment significantly increased the core fluid retention index (Sci) parameter. Sodium hypochlorite/AdheSE (7.42 +/- 2.16 MPa) significantly increased TBS value compared to other groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found between sodium hypochlorite/Excite (4.68 +/- 1.26 MPa), AdheSE (4.42 +/- 1.36), and Excite (4.06 +/- 1.35). Remnants of smear layer were detected with areas devoid of resin tags in SEM images of samples bonded with AdheSE self-etching adhesive, in contrast to samples bonded with sodium hypochlorite followed by AdheSE self-etching adhesive. CONCLUSION: The application of 5.25% commercial sodium hypochlorite with rubbing action for 60 s (total application time 120 s) seems to positively influence the TBS of the self-etching adhesive; however, it has no significant effect on TBS of etch-and-rinse single-bottle adhesive to dentin. The addition of functional roughness parameters to study the dentin surface was shown to be of importance in evaluating the relationship between bond strength and surface topography of conditioned dentin.

PMID: 18512511 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Related Articles

Effect of adhesive system type and tooth region on the bond strength to dentin.

J Adhes Dent. 2008 Feb;10(2):127-33

Authors: Marques de Melo R, Galhano G, Barbosa SH, Valandro LF, Pavanelli CA, Bottino MA

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the bond strength of two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (two- and three-step) and a self-etching system to coronal and root canal dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The root canals of 30 human incisors and canines were instrumented and prepared with burs. The posts used for luting were duplicated with dual resin cement (Duo-link) inside Aestheti Plus #2 molds. Thus, three groups were formed (n = 10) according to the adhesive system employed: All-Bond 2 (TE3) + resin cement post (rcp) + Duo-link (Dl); One-Step Plus (TE2) + rcp + Dl; Tyrian/One-Step Plus (SE) + rcp + Dl. Afterwards, 8 transverse sections (1.5 mm) were cut from 4 mm above the CEJ up to 4 mm short of the root canal apex, comprising coronal and root canal dentin. The sections were submitted to push-out testing in a universal testing machine EMIC (1 mm/min). Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The relationship between the adhesives was not the same in the different regions (p < 0.05). Comparison of the means achieved with the adhesives in each region (Tukey; p < 0.05) revealed that TE3 (mean +/- standard deviation: 5.22 +/- 1.70) was higher than TE2 (2.60 +/- 1.74) and SE (1.68 +/- 1.85). CONCLUSION: Under the experimental conditions, better bonding to dentin was achieved using the three-step etch-and-rinse system, especially in the coronal region. Therefore, the traditional etch-and-rinse three-step adhesive system seems to be the best choice for teeth needing adhesive endodontic restorations.

PMID: 18512510 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Related Articles

Effects of de- and remineralization of dentin on bond strengths yielded by one-, three-, and four-step adhesives.

J Adhes Dent. 2008 Feb;10(2):119-26

Authors: Schmidlin PR, Siebenmann J, Kocher P, Seemann R, Attin T, Bindl A

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of different peri- and intertubular dentin mineralization conditions and etching on shear bond strength in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty crowns of extracted bovine incisors were embedded in resin and ground to expose the buccal coronal dentin. Sixty specimens were subjected to a demineralizing solution (DS) and another 60 teeth to a bacterial-based laboratory caries model (S. mutans, SM). Thirty specimens of each demineralization protocol (DS and SM) were randomly selected and remineralized (-R). Thirty sound dentin specimens served as control (C). Resin composite buildups (Tetric) were bonded after application of one of the following adhesives: a one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno III), and a self-etching adhesive (Syntac Classic) without (three-step) and with prior additional 35% phosphoric acid etching (etch-and-rinse, four-step). Teeth were subjected to shear bond strength testing in a universal testing device at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (Ultradent method). RESULTS: Bond strength value for group C ranged from 6.3 to 8.4 MPa (p > 0.05). DS and DS-R samples showed in creased bond strength with the one-step adhesive (11.6 MPa, p < 0.05), whereas the three-step adhesive with additional etching showed decreased bond strength (3.2 MPa, p < 0.05). SM samples showed the lowest bond strength of all adhesive systems (range 1.1 to 1.5 MPa, p > 0.05). Remineralization showed no effect on the latter group. CONCLUSION: The degree of mineralization of the dentin is important for adhesion. Additional etching with phosphori acid reduced bond strength of a three-step adhesive.

PMID: 18512509 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]







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