Apexit Plus Root Canal Sealer
|Apexit Plus is a radiopaque, non-shrinking root canal sealer paste that is based upon calcium hydroxide. It is used for the permanent obturation of root canals and it is suitable for use in conjunction with all obturation techniques involving gutta-percha.
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|Physicochemical properties of endodontic sealers of different bases.|
OBJECTIVE: To assess the setting time (ST), flow (FL), radiopacity (RD), solubility (SB) and dimensional change following setting (DC) of different sealers (AH Plus®, Polifil, Apexit Plus®, Sealapex®, Endométhasone® and Endofill®) according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification 57. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five samples of each material were used for each test. For ST, cast rings were filled with sealers and tested with a Gilmore needle. For FL, the sealer was placed on a glass plate. After 180 s, another plate with 20 g and a load of 100 g were applied on the material, and the diameters of the discs formed were measured. In RD, circular molds were filled with the sealers, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. For SB, circular molds were filled with the sealers, a nylon thread was placed inside the material and another glass plate was positioned on the set, pressed and stored at 37°C. Samples were weighed, placed in water, dried and reweighed. The water used for SB was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. For DC, circular molds were filled with the sealers, covered by glass plates and stored at 37°C. Samples were measured and stored in water for 30 days. After this period, they were dryed and measured again. RESULTS: Regarding ST, AH Plus®, Apexit® and Endofil® sealers are in accordance with ANSI/ADA standards. Endométhasone''s manufacturer did not mention the ST;Polifil is an experimental sealer and Sealapex® did not set. Considering RD, SB and DC, all sealers were in accordance with ANSI/ADA. The spectrometric analysis showed that a significant amount of K+ and Zn2+ ions was released from Apexit Plus® and Endofill®, respectively. CONCLUSION: Except for DC, all other physicochemical properties of the tested sealers conformed to ANSI/ADA requirements.
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|The dissolving ability of different organic solvents on three different root canal sealers: in vitro study.|
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate three common gutta-percha solvents '' effectiveness in dissolving three different types of root canal sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The solubility of three different root canal sealers (AH Plus, Apexit Plus and Endoflas FS) was assessed in xylene, refined orange oil, tetrachloroethylene and distilled water (control). One-hundred twenty samples of root canal sealers were prepared and then divided into three equal groups (n=40). Each group was further divided into four equal subgroups (n=10) for immersion in the respective solvents for a 10 minute immersion period. The mean amount of weight loss was determined for each material in each solvent during the specified immersion period, and the values were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Xylene exhibited the greatest dissolving efficacy for AH Plus, followed by refined orange oil and tetrachloroethylene. Xylene was also able to dissolve the greatest amount of Apexit Plus, followed by refined orange oil and tetrachloroethylene which were equally effective in dissolving Apexit Plus. For Endoflas FS, maximum dissolving efficacy was seen with tetrachloroethylene followed by refined orange oil and xylene. CONCLUSION: The results showed that xylene, refined orange oil and tetrachloroethylene can be used for the removal of AH Plus, Apexit plus and Endoflas FS sealers during endodontic retreatment. Further clinical investigations are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these solvents on different sealers.
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|Incorporation of antimicrobial agents can be used to enhance the antibacterial effect of endodontic sealers.|
AIM: The antibacterial activity of five endodontic sealers against three different microorganism strains alone and following incorporation of 2% benzalkonium chloride (BC) and 2% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) was evaluated. METHODOLOGY: The agar diffusion method was used to determine the inhibitory effect of the following endodontic sealers: RoekoSeal, Endomethasone N, N2, Apexit Plus and AH plus, on Streptococcus mutans - ATCC 25175, Lactobacillus casei - ATCC 4646 and Actinomyces viscosus - ATCC 19246. Bacterial strains were inoculated into BHIB, and incubated in an anaerobic atmosphere (37 °C). From the bacteria grown in the liquid medium, the density of the inoculum was set to be equivalent to McFarland 2 standard. In Shaedler agar, 350 μL of the bacterial suspension were equally spread. Specimens (4 mm × 6 mm) were prepared from each material without and with addition of 2% BC or 2% CPC. The inhibition zones were determined after 2 days, after 7 days and after 21 days of incubation. RESULTS: The largest inhibition zones were shown at zero time in all cases, with progressively less inhibition at 7 and 21 days. Endomethasone N and N2 showed the most intense antimicrobial activity, while RoekoSeal showed the least antimicrobial effect. The most susceptible microorganism was A. viscosus. Greater antimicrobial effects were found following incorporation of BC or CPC, and generally, BC gave greater inhibition zones than CPC. CONCLUSIONS: Adding either BC or CPC has the potential to improve clinical outcomes with endodontic sealers, as these substances enhance the short-term antimicrobial effects of the sealers. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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