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 Influence of chemical irrigants on the tensile bond strength of an adhesive system used to cement glass fiber posts to root dentin.

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Influence of chemical irrigants on the tensile bond strength of an adhesive system used to cement glass fiber posts to root dentin.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010 Aug 31;

Authors: Pelegrine RA, Sigrist De Martin A, Cunha RS, Pelegrine AA, da Silveira Bueno CE

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of endodontic irrigants on the tensile bond strength of an adhesive system used to cement glass fiber posts to dentin. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty bovine roots were divided into 5 groups according to the solution used during instrumentation: G1, 0.9% NaCl (control); G2, 1.0% NaOCl; G3, 2.5% NaOCl; G4, 5.25% NaOCl; G5, 2% chlorhexidine gel + 0.9% NaCl. The root canals were obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, and the glass fiber posts were cemented with Clearfil SE Bond/RelyX ARC. The specimens were submitted to tensile strength testing and the results were analyzed by analysis of variance. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences regarding the irrigant solution factor (P > .70). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the different irrigant solutions did not affect the tensile bond strength of the fixation system used to cement the intraradicular glass fiber posts to dentin.

PMID: 20813561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




 Bond strengths of an epoxy resin-based fiber post with four adhesive systems.

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Bond strengths of an epoxy resin-based fiber post with four adhesive systems.

Quintessence Int. 2010 Oct;41(9):e173-80

Authors: Wang Z, Ji Y, Zhang F

Objectives: To investigate the push-out bond strengths of one epoxy resin-based quartz-fiber post with four adhesive systems. Method and Materials: Forty-four single-rooted, single-canal teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 11): One-step (One-Step + Duo-link; Bisco), Variolink II (Excite DSC + Variolink II; Ivoclar Vivadent), Panavia F (ED primer + Panavia F; Kuraray), and RelyX (RelyX Unicem; 3M ESPE). All teeth crowns were removed, and the roots were treated with root canal therapy. Four adhesive systems were employed for bonding of one type of quartz-fiber post, strictly according to the manufacturers' instructions. Ten roots in each group were transversely sectioned into cervical, middle, and apical third slices 2 mm thick, and the bond strengths were measured with the push-out test. The other root was processed for SEM analysis. Two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Student-Newman-Keuls test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The push-out bond strengths were 7.15 +/- 3.43 MPa (RelyX), 12.48 +/- 9.33 MPa (One-step), 2.96 +/- 2.76 MPa (Panavia F), and 13.43 +/- 6.14 MPa (Variolink II). Two-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among adhesive systems (P < .05) and root regions (P < .05). The bond strengths of One-step and Variolink II groups were statistically higher than those of RelyX and Panavia F groups. The bond strengths of the cervical region of One-step and Panavia F groups were statistically significantly higher than those of the other two regions. The SEM images showed uniform and long resin tags in One-step and Variolink II groups, whereas few or no resin tags were visible in the other two groups. Conclusion: The type of adhesive system and root region had a significant influence on the bond strengths of the adhesively luted fiber posts. Total-etching technique achieved better bond strength than did the self-etching technique. (Quintessence Int 2010;41:e173-e180).

PMID: 20806094 [PubMed - in process]




 Effect of cement type, relining procedure, and length of cementation on pull-out bond strength of fiber posts.

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Effect of cement type, relining procedure, and length of cementation on pull-out bond strength of fiber posts.

J Endod. 2010 Sep;36(9):1543-6

Authors: Macedo VC, Faria e Silva AL, Martins LR

INTRODUCTION: As opposed to the cementation metal posts, the cementation of fiber posts has several details that can significantly influence the success of post retention. This study evaluated the effect of the relining procedure, the cement type, and the luted length of the post on fiber posts retention. METHODS: One hundred eighty bovine incisors were selected to assess post retention; after endodontic treatment, the canals were flared with diamonds burs. Post holes were prepared in lengths of 5, 7.5, and 10 mm; the fiber posts were relined with composite resin and luted with RelyX ARC, RelyX Unicem, or RelyX Luting 2. All cements are manufactured by 3M ESPE (St. Paul, MN). Samples were subjected to a pull-out bond strength test in a universal testing machine; the results (N) were submitted to a three-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: The improvement of post retention occurred with the increase of the post length luted into the root canal; the relining procedure improved the pull-out bond strength. RelyX Unicem and RelyX ARC showed similar values of retention, both showing higher values than RelyX Luting 2. CONCLUSION: Post length, the relining procedure, and the cement type are all important factors for improving the retention of fiber posts.

PMID: 20728724 [PubMed - in process]




 Effect of Obturating Systems, Dowel Materials, and Adhesive Luting Techniques on the Resistance to Fracture of Endodontically Treated Teeth.

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Effect of Obturating Systems, Dowel Materials, and Adhesive Luting Techniques on the Resistance to Fracture of Endodontically Treated Teeth.

J Prosthodont. 2010 Aug 16;

Authors: Guindy JE, Fouda MY

Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the role of obturating systems, dowel materials, and adhesive techniques on the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods: Eighty maxillary central incisors were selected and randomly divided into two groups according to the obturating system (n = 40); group I: gutta-percha and Roeko sealer; group II: RealSeal. Both groups were further subdivided into two subgroups; subgroup A: using ceramic dowels (Cosmopost); subgroup B using fiber dowels (Easy Post). Each subgroup was assigned to two divisions according to the adhesive luting technique; division V (total-etch) Variolink II resin cement; division U (self-adhesive) RelyX Unicem. Composite core build-up was made using a core former. Each specimen was loaded 2 mm from its incisal edge on the palatal side at a 135 degrees angle with the long axis of the tooth using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 5 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Failure loads were recorded in N. Scanning electron microscopic examination at the dentin/resin interface (1000x) was performed. Three-way ANOVA was used to test the effect of obturating system, dowel material, adhesive technique, and their interactions (obturating system * dowel material, obturating system * adhesive, dowel material * adhesive, obturating system * dowel material * adhesive). Duncan's test was used for pairwise comparison. The significance level was set at p</= 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 16.0. Results: The mean resistance to fracture (617.4 N) was statistically significantly higher in the ceramic dowel with gutta-percha and Variolink (GP/C/V) group than in the other groups. The RealSeal and RelyX fiber dowel group's mean resistance was the lowest and was significantly lower than the other groups. Conclusions: In this study, three factors played a part in enhancing the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated teeth. High resistance to fracture was achieved when ceramic dowels were luted with total-etch technique in gutta-percha-obturated teeth.

PMID: 20723015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




 Microleakage of Porcelain and Composite Machined Crowns Cemented with Self-Adhesive or Conventional Resin Cement.

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Microleakage of Porcelain and Composite Machined Crowns Cemented with Self-Adhesive or Conventional Resin Cement.

J Prosthodont. 2010 Aug 16;

Authors: Ghazy M, El-Mowafy O, Roperto R

Abstract Purpose: Resistance of machined crowns to microleakage when cemented with new self-adhesive cements has not been fully investigated. This study evaluated microleakage of machined crowns milled from porcelain and composite blocks and bonded to teeth with self-adhesive and conventional resin cement. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two freshly extracted premolars of similar shape and size were sterilized and mounted in resin blocks. Teeth received standard crown preparations with 1-mm circumferential shoulder finish line, flat occlusal surface reduced by 2 mm, and ideal angle of convergence. Prepared teeth were divided into two equal groups and assigned to either porcelain (Vita Mark II, Vident) or composite (Paradigm MZ100, 3M ESPE) blocks for crown fabrication. Optical impressions were captured for each tooth with the intraoral camera of a CEREC 3D machine. Crowns were designed and milled from both materials. Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups (n = 8) according to cement used (self-adhesive resin cement, RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE or resin cement with self-etching adhesive, Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray). Following seating, a 5-kg weight was applied on the occlusal surface of the crown for 5 minutes. Specimens were then stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Specimens were thermocycled for 3000 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C, then coated with nail varnish and immersed in a 2.0% basic red fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours. Teeth were then rinsed and sectioned mesiodistally and assessed under magnification for microleakage. A five-point scale was used to score degree of microleakage. Data were statistically analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Results: Crown material had no significant effect on microleakage (p= 0.67); however, cement type had a significant effect (p < 0.0001), with Panavia F 2.0 resulting in lower microleakage scores than RelyX Unicem. Conclusions: Compared to the self-adhesive cement, the resin cement with separate primer/bonding agent resulted in significantly lower microleakage scores, irrespective of crown material.

PMID: 20723014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




 Influence of ultrasound application on inlays luting with self-adhesive resin cements.

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Influence of ultrasound application on inlays luting with self-adhesive resin cements.

Clin Oral Investig. 2010 Aug 7;

Authors: Cantoro A, Goracci C, Coniglio I, Magni E, Polimeni A, Ferrari M

The study was aimed at assessing the influence of the cement manipulation and ultrasounds application on the bonding potential of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin by microtensile bond strength testing and microscopic observations of the interface. Fifty-six standardized mesio-occlusal class II cavities were prepared in extracted third molars. Class II inlays were made using the nano-hybrid resin composite Gradia Forte (GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), following the manufacturer's instruction. The sample was randomly divided into two groups (n = 28) according to the luting technique. Half of the specimens were luted under a static seating pressure (P), while the other ones were cemented under vibration (V). The inlays were luted using the following self-adhesive resin cements: G-Cem (G, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan) Automix (GA) and Capsule (GC); RelyX Unicem (RU, 3 M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) Clicker (RUC) and Aplicap (RUA). Microtensile sticks and specimens for scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were obtained from the luted teeth. The interfacial strengths measured for the cements under static pressure or ultrasonic vibration were [median (interquartile range)]: GC/V 4 (2.3-7.9); GC/P 6.8 (4.1-10.1); GA/V 3 (1.9-6.7); GA/P 1.9 (0-5.1); RUC/V 6.6 (4.6-9.8); RUC/P 4.1 (1.8-6.4); RUA/V 6.2 (2.4-10.4); RUA/P 3.4 (0-5.4). The cement formulation influenced dentin bond strength of G. RU bond strength was affected by the luting technique. SEM analysis revealed a homogeneous structure and reduced porosities for both cements as a result of ultrasonic vibration. RU benefited from the application of ultrasounds, while GC achieved higher bond strengths than GA.

PMID: 20694567 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




 Effect of early orthodontic force on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems.

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Effect of early orthodontic force on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010 Aug;138(2):208-14

Authors: Abdelnaby YL, Al-Wakeel Eel S

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of applying early orthodontic force on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with 4 adhesive systems. METHODS: Eighty stainless steel brackets were bonded to the enamel surfaces of extracted premolars with 4 adhesive systems. For each adhesive, 10 brackets were bonded without application of force (groups 1, 3, 5, and 7), and another 10 were subjected to a 120-g force with a coil spring (groups 2, 4, 6, and 8). This force was applied 30 minutes after bonding and maintained for 24 hours. Groups 1 and 2 had Rely-a-bond primer and Rely-a-bond adhesive (Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill). Groups 3 and 4 had Transbond XT primer and Transbond XT adhesive (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). Groups 5 and 6 had Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer and Transbond XT adhesive (3M Unitek). Groups 7 and 8 had RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany). After thermocycling, SBS testing was performed by using a universal testing machine (Type 500, Lloyd Instruments Ltd, Fareham Hants, UK). The results of SBS testing for all adhesives were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and the Duncan test. The unpaired Student t test was used to compare the effect of force on the SBS of each adhesive. RESULTS: Transbond XT primer and its adhesive had the highest values (without force, 11.2 +/- 3.1 MPa; with force, 10.7 +/- 2.7 MPa), and RelyX Unicem had the lowest (without force, 5.8 +/- 1.5MPa; with force, 5.7 +/- 1.6 MPa). Application of force yielded nonsignificant reductions in SBS for all adhesives; this reduction was less pronounced with RelyX Unicem. CONCLUSIONS: For all studied adhesive systems, orthodontic force up to 120 g can be applied within the first hour after bonding with no deleterious effects on bond strength.

PMID: 20691363 [PubMed - in process]




 Durability of four composite resin cements bonded to dentin under simulated pulpal pressure.

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Durability of four composite resin cements bonded to dentin under simulated pulpal pressure.

Dent Mater. 2010 Oct;26(10):1001-9

Authors: Lin J, Mehl C, Yang B, Kern M

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the durability of four adhesive luting systems bonded to dentin with and without simulated hydrostatic pulpal pressure (PP). METHODS: Composite blocks were bonded to dentin with four adhesive systems: Multilink Automix (MA), Multilink Sprint (MS), Clearfil Esthetic cement (CE) and RelyX ARC (RAC) under either a PP of 0 or 15 cm H(2)O. After 3 d water storage at 37 degrees C or thermal cycling (TC), of 30 d with 5000 TC or 90 d with 15,000 TC micro-tensile bond strength (microTBS) was tested. Failure analysis of the bonding interface was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). RESULTS: Independent of PP application groups MA and RAC showed significantly higher microTBS than CE and MS (P< or =0.05). A significant decrease in microTBS was found for RAC and MS when subjected to PP (P< or =0.05), whereas CE and MA showed no significant difference (P>0.05). TC had no significant influence on the microTBS in RAC, MA and CE without PP application (P>0.05), whereas CE with PP and MS showed a significant decrease in microTBS (P< or =0.05) when subjected to TC. SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results, there were significant differences between materials. Pulpal pressure and artificial aging also seem to have an effect on in-vitro evaluation of bonding durability. If considered relevant to the materials' service performance then these conditions should be applied in the materials' testing.

PMID: 20673992 [PubMed - in process]




 Bonding of self-adhesive resin cements to enamel using different surface treatments: bond strength and etching pattern evaluations.

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Bonding of self-adhesive resin cements to enamel using different surface treatments: bond strength and etching pattern evaluations.

Dent Mater J. 2010 Aug 7;29(4):425-32

Authors: Lin J, Shinya A, Gomi H, Shinya A

This study evaluated the shear bond strengths and etching patterns of seven self-adhesive resin cements to human enamel specimens which were subjected to one of the following surface treatments: (1) Polishing with #600 polishing paper; (2) Phosphoric acid; (3) G-Bond one-step adhesive; or (4) Phosphoric acid and G-Bond. After surface treatment, the human incisor specimens were bonded to a resin composite using a self-adhesive resin cement [Maxcem (MA), RelyX Unicem (UN), Breeze (BR), BisCem (BI), seT (SE), Clearfil SA Luting (CL)] or a conventional resin cement [ResiCem (RE)]. Representative morphology formed with self-adhesive resin cements showed areas of etched enamel intermingled with areas of featureless enamel. In conclusion, etching efficacy influenced the bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive resin cements to unground enamel, and that a combined use of phosphoric acid and G-Bond for pretreatment of human enamel surfaces improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements.

PMID: 20668359 [PubMed - in process]




 Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of a resin cement to commercially pure titanium.

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Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of a resin cement to commercially pure titanium.

Braz Dent J. 2010;21(2):111-6

Authors: de Almeida-Júnior AA, Fonseca RG, Haneda IG, Abi-Rached Fde O, Adabo GL

Investigation of the effectiveness of surface treatments that promote a strong bond strength of resin cements to metals can contribute significantly to the longevity of metal-ceramic restorations. This study evaluated the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin cement to commercially pure titanium (CP Ti). Ninety cast CP Ti discs were divided into 3 groups (n=30), which received one of the following airborne-particle abrasion conditions: (1) 50 microm Al(2)O(3) particles; (2) 30 microm silica-modified Al(2)O(3) particles (Cojet Sand); (3) 110 microm silica-modified Al(2)O(3) particles (Rocatec). For each airborne-particle abrasion condition, the following post-airborne-particle abrasion treatments were used (n=10): (1) none; (2) adhesive Adper Single Bond 2; (3) silane RelyX Ceramic Primer. RelyX ARC resin cement was bonded to CP Ti surfaces. All specimens were thermally cycled before being tested in shear mode. Failure mode was determined. The best association was Rocatec plus silane. All groups showed 100% adhesive failure. There were combinations that promote higher SBS than the protocol recommended by the manufacturer of RelyX ARC.

PMID: 20640356 [PubMed - in process]




 Push-out bond strength of CAD/CAM-ceramic luted to dentin with self-adhesive resin cements.

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Push-out bond strength of CAD/CAM-ceramic luted to dentin with self-adhesive resin cements.

Dent Mater. 2010 Sep;26(9):855-63

Authors: Flury S, Lussi A, Peutzfeldt A, Zimmerli B

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the initial and the artificially aged push-out bond strength between ceramic and dentin produced by one of five resin cements. METHODS: Two-hundred direct ceramic restorations (IPS Empress CAD) were luted to standardized Class I cavities in extracted human molars using one of four self-adhesive cements (SpeedCEM, RelyX Unicem Aplicap, SmartCem2 and iCEM) or a reference etch-and-rinse resin cement (Syntac/Variolink II) (n=40/cement). Push-out bond strength (PBS) was measured (1) after 24h water storage (non-aged group; n=20/cement) or (2) after artificial ageing with 5000 thermal cycles followed by 6 months humid storage (aged group; n=20/cement). Nonparametrical ANOVA and pairwise Wilcoxon rank-sum tests with Bonferroni-Holm adjustment were applied for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at alpha=0.05. In addition, failure mode and fracture pattern were analyzed by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Whereas no statistically significant effect of storage condition was found (p=0.441), there was a significant effect of resin cement (p<0.0001): RelyX Unicem showed significantly higher PBS than the other cements. Syntac/Variolink II showed significantly higher PBS than SmartCEM2 (p<0.001). No significant differences were found between SpeedCEM, SmartCem2, and iCEM. The predominant failure mode was adhesive failure of cements at the dentin interface except for RelyX Unicem which in most cases showed cohesive failure in ceramic. SIGNIFICANCE: The resin cements showed marked differences in push-out bond strength when used for luting ceramic restorations to dentin. Variolink II with the etch-and-rinse adhesive Syntac did not perform better than three of the four self-adhesive resin cements tested.

PMID: 20627368 [PubMed - in process]




 Bonding property of two resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cements to zirconia ceramic.

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Bonding property of two resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cements to zirconia ceramic.

Quintessence Int. 2010 Jul-Aug;41(7):e132-40

Authors: Zhang W, Masumi SI, Song XM

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a stable bond could be obtained between resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement and zirconia ceramic. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Sixty disk specimens of a dental ceramic (Cercon zirconia ceramic, Dentsply) were made and treated by airborne-particle abrasion. They were divided into three groups and bonded to two resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cements (RelyX Luting [3M ESPE] and Fuji Plus [GC]) and one resin cement (Panavia F, Kuraray) as a control group. All bonded specimens of each group (n = 20) were stored in distilled water (37 degrees C) for 24 hours, and half were additionally aged by thermocycling (20,000 times). Shear bond strength test was performed to measure the bond strength. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and paired t test with a = .05. The interfacial morphology of debonded specimens was observed by using a scanning electron microscope, and the mode of bonding fracture was evaluated. Results: The initial shear bond strength (in 24 hours) of the two resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cements to zirconia ceramic was 17.33 +/- 3.53 MPa and 16.68 +/- 2.76 MPa, and it dropped significantly to 7.62 +/- 2.17 MPa and 4.65 +/- 2.02 MPa after thermocycling. In the control group, the initial shear bond strength was 26.25 +/- 5.61 MPa, and there was no obvious decrease after thermocycling. The bonding failure of resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cements was mostly adhesive failure between cement and ceramic. CONCLUSION: Resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement could not offer a stable bond to abraded zirconia ceramic after thermocycling, and there was no durable chemical or mechanical bond between resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement and zirconia ceramic.

PMID: 20614036 [PubMed - in process]




 Effect of chlorhexidine on initial adhesion of fiber-reinforced post to root canal.

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Effect of chlorhexidine on initial adhesion of fiber-reinforced post to root canal.

J Dent. 2010 Oct;38(10):796-801

Authors: Lindblad RM, Lassila LV, Salo V, Vallittu PK, Tjäderhane L

OBJECTIVES: Chlorhexidine is used as final irrigant before endodontic obturation and fiber-reinforced composite posts are recommended for restoration retention. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine on adhesion of cements used in post cementation. We hypothesized that chlorhexidine would not negatively affect the immediate bond strength. METHODS: Root canals of eighty human extracted third molars were prepared for post cementation with each post systems' own burs. Four commercially available FRC posts (Glassix, D.T.Light-Post, Unicore, everStickPOST) with three cements (Duo-link with All-bond 2, PermaFlo DC with PermaFlo DC Primers, RelyX Unicem) were used. After etching, except with self-etching RelyX Unicem, the post spaces were irrigated either with 2% chlorhexidine (Consepsis) or physiological saline for 60 s. With RelyX Unicem, respective treatments were done before cement application. The roots (n=5 per group) were cut into 2 mm thick dentin discs. The bond strength was measured with push-out method, and the failure mode was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. RESULTS: Significant differences in bond strength were observed between various post/cement combinations. Unicore/PermaFlo DC and everStickPOST/RelyX Unicem showed significantly higher bond strengths than Glassix or D.T.Light-Post with Duo-link both with saline and chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine improved the bond strength slightly with all posts/cements except with D.T.Light-Post, but the differences were not statistically significant. With chlorhexidine, significant reduction of adhesive failures towards dentin cohesive or mixed failures was observed with all posts/cements except with everStickPOST. CONCLUSION: Chlorhexidine did not negatively affect the push-out bond strength in post bond cementation.

PMID: 20600556 [PubMed - in process]




 Comparison of the effect of storage media on shear punch strength of resin luting cements.

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Comparison of the effect of storage media on shear punch strength of resin luting cements.

J Dent. 2010 Oct;38(10):820-7

Authors: Bagheri R, Mese A, Burrow MF, Tyas MJ

OBJECTIVES: To measure the shear punch strength of eight resin-containing luting cements before and after immersion in acidic solution and ethanol at different temperatures (37 degrees C and 60 degrees C). METHOD: Specimens were prepared from six resin luting cements; Set (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), RelyX Veneer (3M/ESPE), VarioloinkII (Ivoclar), Maxcem (Kerr), Nexus2 (Kerr) and two Resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RM-GICs); GC Fuji Plus (GC Corporation), RelyX Luting 2 (3M/ESPE). For each material a total of 114 disc-shaped specimens were prepared. Six specimens were immersed in distilled water for 24 h at 37 degrees C, polished and subjected to baseline measurement for shear punch strength. The remaining 108 specimens were randomly divided into 18 groups of six, and immersed in three solutions; distilled water, 0.01 mol/L lactic acid, and 50% ethanol at 37 degrees C or 60 degrees C, for 1 week, 1 month or 3 months. Specimens were washed, dried and tested for final shear punch strength. RESULTS: Values were material and solution dependent. Values of Nexus 2 and Rely X Veneer are the highest, and Rely X Luting 2 the lowest. Ethanol and lactic acid specimens showed significantly lower values compared with the distilled water specimens. CONCLUSION: The shear punch strengths of the resin-containing luting cements were affected by time and storage solution. While some of the resin luting cements had significantly higher values compared to that of the RM-GICs, there were no significant differences between the RM-GICs and resin cements such as Panavia F and Set.

PMID: 20600555 [PubMed - in process]




 A new use for self-etching resin adhesives: cementing bone fragments.

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A new use for self-etching resin adhesives: cementing bone fragments.

J Dent. 2010 Sep;38(9):750-6

Authors: Ortiz Ruiz AJ, Vicente A, Camacho Alonso F, López Jornet P

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the bond capacities of four self-etching resin cements and the self-etching adhesives of the same manufacturer when used to cement bone fragments and compare them with a well-known N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate bone adhesive. METHODS: 125 cylindrical bone specimens from pig mandibular ramus bone were prepared using terphane burs and cemented to the corticals of 125 other specimens obtained from pig mandibular body bone using the following bond systems: Group A: Adper PLP/Relyx; group B: Optibond/Maxcem; group C: Hystoacryl; group D: AdheSE/Multilink; group E: G-Bond/G-Cem. Shear bond strength was measured 15 min after cement application using a universal testing machine. RESULTS: Shear bond strength results: group A 2.54+/-0.23 MPa; group B 4.83+/-0.4 MPa; group C 2.90+/-0.24 MPa; group D 2.10+/-0.17 MPa; group E 4.22+/-0.24 MPa. Values for shear bond strength were significantly greater for group B and E compared to groups A, C and D (p<0.005, test Mann-Whitney). SEM images showed the presence of a hybrid layer similar to that formed by these bond systems when used on dentine. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of an in vitro investigation, results show that self-etching resin cements together with self-etching adhesives may be used for cementing bone fragments.

PMID: 20600553 [PubMed - in process]




 Influence of surface pretreatment of fiber posts on cement delamination.

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Influence of surface pretreatment of fiber posts on cement delamination.

Dent Mater. 2010 Sep;26(9):901-7

Authors: Jongsma LA, Kleverlaan CJ, Feilzer AJ

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of post surface pretreatment on the delamination strength of different cements from a prefabricated FRC post tested in a three-point bending test. METHODS: Three cements were tested; RelyX Unicem, DC Core Automix, and Panavia F2.0. Per cement, 40 posts (D.T. Light Post Illusion size 3) were divided into four groups; no pretreatment (control), sandblasting, silanization, and sandblasting followed by silanization. A cement layer was applied to the posts using a standardized poly-oxy-methacrylate mold. The specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test recording the initial and catastrophic failure loads. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used to analyze the differences between the variables. RESULTS: At the initial failure load, all specimens demonstrated delamination of the cement layer, therefore initial failure load was defined as delamination strength. With RelyX Unicem, none of the pretreatments showed significant differences. When using Panavia F2.0, silanization (735+/-51 MPa) resulted in higher initial failure values than sandblasting (600+/-118 MPa). When DC Core Automix was used, silanization (732+/-144 MPa) produced significantly higher initial failure values than the no pretreatment group (518+/-115 MPa) and the combined sandblasting and silanization group (560+/-223 MPa). Two failure types were observed; cohesive and adhesive failure. In the silanization groups, more cohesive failures were observed for all cements tested. SIGNIFICANCE: Especially when non self-adhesive cements are used, silanization of fiber posts has a beneficial effect on cement delamination strength and failure type.

PMID: 20542550 [PubMed - in process]




 Influence of curing mode and time on degree of conversion of one conventional and two self-adhesive resin cements.

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Influence of curing mode and time on degree of conversion of one conventional and two self-adhesive resin cements.

Oper Dent. 2010 May-Jun;35(3):295-9

Authors: Aguiar TR, Di Francescantonio M, Arrais CA, Ambrosano GM, Davanzo C, Giannini M

This study evaluated the effect of curing mode (auto- and dual-polymerizing mode) and time interval (5, 10 and 15 minutes) on the degree of conversion of resin cements. One conventional dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F 2.0 [Kuraray Medical Inc]) and two self-adhesive cements (RelyX Unicem [3M ESPE] and BisCem [BISCO, Inc]) were evaluated. The products (n = 5) were manipulated according to the manufacturer's instructions and applied to the surface of a horizontal attenuated reflectance unit attached to an infrared spectrometer. The materials were either light-cured for 40 seconds (dual-polymerizing mode) or allowed to auto-polymerize. The degree of conversion was calculated according to changes in the aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios prior to and 5, 10 and 15 minutes after light-activation or after mixing when the specimens were allowed to auto-polymerize. Data (%) were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANOVA (curing mode and time interval) and Tukey's post-hoc test (alpha = 0.05%). The light-activating mode led to a higher degree of conversion values than the self-curing mode in self-adhesive cements (RelyX Unicem and BisCem), while there was no difference in the degree of conversion between the self- and light-cured groups of Panavia F 2.0 resin cement. All products showed a higher degree of conversion at 15 minutes postcuring than any other evaluation interval. The self-adhesive cements provide a higher degree of conversion values when light-activated. After 15 minutes of polymerization initiation, the degree of conversion was higher in all resin cements, regardless of the curing mode.

PMID: 20533629 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




 Differential hydrolytic degradation of dentin bonds when luting carbon fiber posts to the root canal.

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Differential hydrolytic degradation of dentin bonds when luting carbon fiber posts to the root canal.

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010 Jun 1;

Authors: Montanari M, Prati C, Piana G

Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of water storage, adhesive system and root canal region on the hydrolytic degradation of dentin bonds to carbon fiber posts. Study design: Fiber posts were bonded to the root canals using different adhesive systems and composites: SB1 XT group (Scotchbond 1 XT/RelyX ARC), OBF group (One Up Bond F Plus/Ionotite F), and AB2 group (All Bond 2/C&B) After water storage (10 days), all roots were sectioned into 1 mm beams and divided into coronal or apical group. The specimens were stored in water at 22-26 degrees C temperature for 15 or 60 days and tested for microtensile bond strength at a crosshead speed of 0.9 mm/min after the calculation of the bonding area. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA followed by Tukey test to detect differences between groups (alpha=0.05). SEM investigation was performed to determine the mode of fracture. Results: Bond strength at coronal and apical half showed significant differences between experimental groups both after 15 and 60 days of water storage. Premature failures were observed in 16-20% of specimens before storage in water. Conclusions: For the bonding systems tested, clinicians should consider that bond strength inside the root canal at apical half is lower than at coronal half irrespective of the adhesive system. The adhesion within the root canal is possible for SB1 XT and OBF groups unlike the AB2 group where adhesion to root canal dentine is not reliable. Nevertheless, apical half represents the worst scenario in which is possible to obtain a durable adhesion.

PMID: 20526268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




 Innovations in bonding to zirconia based ceramics: Part III. Phosphate monomer resin cements.

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Innovations in bonding to zirconia based ceramics: Part III. Phosphate monomer resin cements.

Dent Mater. 2010 Aug;26(8):786-92

Authors: Mirmohammadi H, Aboushelib MN, Salameh Z, Feilzer AJ, Kleverlaan CJ

PURPOSE: To compare the bond strength values and the ranking order of three phosphate monomer containing resin cements using microtensile (microTBS) and microshear (microSBS) bond strength tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zirconia discs (Procera Zirconia) were bonded to resin composite discs (Filtek Z250) using three different cements (Panavia F 2.0, RelyX UniCem, and Multilink). Two bond strength tests were used to determine zirconia resin bond strength; microtensile bond strength test (microTBS) and microshear bond strength test (microSBS). Ten specimens were tested for each group (n=10). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data (alpha=0.05). RESULTS: There were statistical significant differences in bond strength values and in the ranking order obtained using the two test methods. microTBS reported significant differences in bond strength values, whereas microSBS failed to detect such effect. Both Multilink and Panavia demonstrated basically cohesive failure in the resin cement while RelyX UniCem demonstrated interfacial failure. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings of this study, the data obtained using either microTBS or microSBS could not be directly compared. microTBS was more sensitive to material differences compared to microSBS which failed to detect such differences.

PMID: 20494433 [PubMed - in process]




 Effect of Er:YAG Laser Irradiations on Shear Bond Strength of Three Self-Adhesive Resin Cements to Dentin.

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Effect of Er:YAG Laser Irradiations on Shear Bond Strength of Three Self-Adhesive Resin Cements to Dentin.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2010 May 22;

Authors: Capa N, Aykor A, Ozel E, Calikkocaoglu S, Soyman M

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of Er:YAG laser irradiation on shear-bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin. Background data: Different laser-irradiation settings are used for dentin-surface pretreatment, which may affect the bond strength of resins. Methods: Fourty-five extracted third molars were selected, sectioned in a mesiodistal direction, and 90 tooth slabs were obtained. The teeth were ground to expose the dentinal hard tissue with 320- and 600-grit silicon carbide disks. The specimens were randomly assigned to nine groups (n = 10). Surfaces for each group were laser irradiated with 30 Hz/70 mJ (2.1 W), 30 Hz/160 mJ (4.8 W), or non-irradiated (control) for each resin cement (SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem, Multilink Automix). All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h after luting. Shear-bond testing was carried out by using a Universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests (p < 0.05). Results: The highest bond-strength value was obtained with SmartCem2, which was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (30 Hz/160 mJ). The lowest values were exhibited in the control group of SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem and Multilink Automix, respectively (4.92 +/- 1.68, 7.17 +/- 2.88, and 7.93 +/- 3.05). Conclusion: The 2.1-W and 4.8-W laser ablation did not show any statistically difference for RelyX Unicem and Multilink Automix materials. However, in the SmartCem2 group, laser irradiated with 30 Hz/160 mJ application increased the bond-strength values, and the highest bond-strength results were obtained in this group.

PMID: 20491574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]







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